Awaji Island and the myth of national origin
At the beginning of the history books "Kojiki" and "Nihonshoki" written in the first half of the 8th century, the myth of national origin is written.
In an era when the earth was still chaotic, Izanagi (Goddess) and Izanami (Goddess) pierced the spear into the sea from the bridge over the sky (the floating bridge in the sky), stirred it, and pulled it up from the tip of the spear. The dripping drops solidified into a small island (Onogoro Island). The two gods landed on the island, got married, and gave birth to Japan one after another. At that time, Onokorojima was the first island to be born.
History of Awaji Ningyo Joruri
Awaji's Ningyo Joruri, which has developed in close relation with Kamigata, has traveled around western Japan since the early Edo period to convey the Joruri culture to the regions. The performances that Awaji Puppet Theater has handed down include those that were abolished early in the center and those that were adapted or created in Awaji, and Awaji Puppet Joruri played an important role in the history of modern theater. came.
A puppet master named Hyakuda Yu from Nishinomiya, Settsu, is included in a roll called "Dokunbo Biography" that Awaji Puppet has carefully told about the origin of the Awaji Puppet Theater. It is written that he came to Sanjo Village (Minamiawaji City (Ichi) Sanjo) in Awaji and told him how to manipulate puppets. In Sanjo, there is a shrine dedicated to the ancestral gods of Awaji puppets, Michikabo and Hyakutayu, and even now, on New Year's Day, "Shikisanbaso" is dedicated in front of the shrine.
In the Edo period, he was one of the first to adopt new joruri and technology from above, and formed a troupe to travel to various places. Everywhere I went, I set up a temporary playhouse called Nokake Hut, and left Awaji in early January and returned in mid-December. Unlike other rural plays, Awaji's Ningyo Joruri was originally a performing art that was handed down and developed by a specialized group that made it a profession.
Awaji Puppet Theater has more than 40 seats in the Kyoho / Genbun period (1716-41) and 18 seats in the Bunsei period (1818-30). Among them, Uemura Gennojoza (Hyuga no Jyo, Hiketa Gennosuke) was the originator of Awaji Puppet, followed by Ichimura Rokunojoza. .. It is said that the first Gennosuke devoted "Sansha Kagura (Shiki Sanbansho)" in the palace in the first year of the former Kame (1570), and was given the rank of junior fourth rank. "Rinji" has been carefully handed down along with "Michikabo Denki" as a proof of the form of the Awaji doll.
In the first year of Genna (1615), the Hachisuka family of the Tokushima domain was added to Awaji Ichikoku by the siege of Osaka. Successive feudal lords and their families often invite Uemura Gennojoza to perform. The 20th year of Kanei (1643) is the oldest performance record of Awaji Puppet. In addition, the clan protected Uemura Gennosuke by exempting him from the role of a husband (a type of tax), having him perform a special big play under Tokushima Castle in the event of financial difficulties, and sometimes lending money.
An example of a large-scale performance under Tokushima Castle is the performance performed by Genroku Uemura in 1693 in Higashitomida, Tokushima. According to "Theatrical Performance" (Hiroyuki Sakaguchi's collection), which recorded this performance, in addition to the permanent actors, three new Tayu and shamisen players were hired from Osaka for the 14-day performance. The program consisted of seven new Joruri titles at the time, and in particular, "Tora Osana Monogatari" (written by Chikamatsu Monzaemon) was performed more than a year earlier than the premiere known so far. Although puppets were used by one person, the same double handrails as they are today are installed on the stage with a frontage of 8 (1 ken is about 1.8 m). The audience was on the scale of "Thousands of people".
During the Edo period, Awaji Puppet's destinations were Kyushu in the south and Chubu / Hokuriku to Tohoku in the north. The records of Hamanoichi, the feudal clan of Kyushu (Oita Prefecture), include the box office records of Awaji-za after the first year of Hoei (1704). In the Chubu region, Rokusaburo Ichimura was popular, and in Hokuriku, Masaemon Nakamura, Rokunosuke Ichimura, and Denjiro Yoshida were popular. These extensive activities of Awaji Puppet have taken root in puppet shows in various places and have had a great influence on local culture.
Uemura Bunrakuken, the founder of Bunraku
In Tsukechi-cho, Nakatsugawa City, Gifu Prefecture, "Okinamai" (Shiki Sanbaso), which was learned from Awaji's puppeteer in 1682, has been handed down. Ina Basin, Nagano Prefecture, along the Tenryu River, is a land with a lot of puppet theater, and in the middle of the Edo period, there were many puppeteers in Awaji who settled in this area and taught puppet theater. In 1987, an old document including "Michikabo Biography" was discovered from the spelling of the Suzue family in Morioka City, Iwate Prefecture, along with an old doll for one person. According to it, Shirobei, the ancestor of the Suzue family, was the younger brother of Matagoro Shoya in Mijo Village, Awaji. It is said that he became active. Uemura Bunrakuken, the founder of Bunraku, is also from Awaji, and the playhouse that opened in Osaka Kozu in the early 19th century was named "Bunrakuza" when it was the third generation Bunrakuken in 1872.
It is the same as Bunraku in that it is a puppet show by Gidayubushi (mainly the head and right hand, the left hand is the left hand, and the foot is manipulating the foot), but the Awaji head is compared to Bunraku. It's pretty big. Since the middle of the Meiji era, each seat has been competing to become larger, and the performance of the period, in which large dolls move dynamically, has gained popularity among local audiences. In addition, Awaji Puppet pursued a production rich in keen taste, such as early change, while leaving a strong Shinto ritual color. The background changes one after another, and at the end it becomes a large hall with a thousand tatami mats. "Fusumayama" to be shown is also a production unique to Awaji Puppet.
Doll Joruri as entertainment
On Awaji Island, there is a saying, "The play starts in the morning, and the lunch box starts in the evening." When the puppet show came, it was the most entertaining to watch the puppet show on a sunny day, preparing a treat full of heavy boxes from the night before. "Sanbaso" goes around the houses on New Year's Day, and at the Ryo Fishing Festival, "Sanbaso" Ebisu-mai (Ebisu Mai) ”and prayed for a good catch. There were joruri rehearsals around the island. The "danjiri song" sung at the festival is also derived from Joruri, and each district has been singing its specialty (Gedai). In this way, the puppet show was deeply integrated into the lives of the people of Awaji, but it was deprived of its popularity by new entertainment and disappeared rapidly in the 1955's.
The Awaji Puppet Conservation Movement started around 1945, but in 1977, the Awaji Puppet Association was established by 1 city and 10 towns in Awaji, and full-scale conservation activities began to take place. Managed by Awaji Puppet Association Awaji Puppet Theatre Is the only place that is currently active, and is working on the tradition of Awaji's original Joruri while actively performing local performances and overseas performances in addition to regular performances in the permanent building. In addition, Minamiawaji Ichikashu Fukui Children's Association, Ichi Elementary School, Nandan Junior High School, Mihara Junior High School, Hyogo Prefectural Awaji Mihara High School and working groups are also enthusiastically working on the transmission of Awaji dolls. .. The Awaji Puppet Theater Support Club was formed in 1997, and the circle that supports Awaji Puppet Joruri is expanding.
The entertainment of the Genroku era as seen in "Theatrical Performance"
The originator of Awaji Ningyo Joruri, Genroku Uemura, performed a large-scale performance in Tokushima Castle in 1693. The state of the play was revealed in detail by the discovery of "Shibai Kongenki" (Hiroyuki Sakaguchi's collection). "Theatrical Nemotoki" is a scroll that was carefully interviewed and compiled by a person named Kiyosumi Shi Zhiyuan, and the existing manuscript is a manuscript copied in 1779. There is no detailed record of such an old era, including the oldest puppet stage map, and it is a very valuable historical material.
In the 5th year of Genroku, Genroku Uemura, who was in financial difficulty, borrowed the third silver bill from the Tokushima domain and requested to enter the castle in the following 6 years. It was an allowance play.
At the box office, 20 full-time puppeteers, Tayu, and shamisen players were added to the newly hired Echigawa Gondayu, Takemoto Sauchi, and Shamisen Harukatsu Yamamoto, and Tokushima Higashi. It was held for 14 days from April 13th to May 8th in a hanging hut made in Tomita. Tsujifuda gives the name of "Takemoto Gidayu", the founder of Gidayubushi and the most popular, but Gidayu has not actually come.
|Joruri External Title (Gedai)||Author / Affiliation|
|Sasaki Okagami Attached Fujito no Senjin||Chikamatsu Monzaemon|
|Yoritomo Izu Diary||Chikamatsu Monzaemon|
|Semimaru Osakayama Story (Semimaru Osakayama Story)||Chikamatsu Monzaemon|
|Taira no Tadanori Satsuma||Chikamatsu Monzaemon|
|Tennoji Higan Chunichi||Kakutao Yamamoto|
|Oiso Tiger Childhood Story||Chikamatsu Monzaemon|
|Saburo Tsudo||Chikamatsu Monzaemon|
|Sumiyoshi dance, Sanbaso dance, Sumiyoshi dance, love candy sale, kiyari, etc.|
One Joruri and four Kyogen performances were performed on the 1st, and the program changed every day. Joruri at that time consisted of five stages, and "Aikyogen" such as dances and skits were performed between the curtains of each stage. According to Mr. Sakaguchi, Joruri was a new crop at that time, and among them, "Oiso Tiger Childhood Story" was performed more than a year earlier than the earliest performance year (July 7th Genroku) confirmed so far. The day before the change of Tayu and Joruri, I played drums and touched the town.
Stage and audience
The dolls were used by one person, but the stage with 8 frontages (about 1.8m per 1) was equipped with double handrails and was the same size as it is today. A bamboo blind hangs in front of the stage. Until the current degatari floor (Yuka) was established in Kyoho 13 (1728), Tayu and Shamisen spoke in the bamboo blinds in front of the stage.
The audience seats are a flat soil room (14 rooms x 13 and a half rooms) and a pier surrounding it, and I am surprised at the scale of "Tsumo Riya (Nari) with a total of 3,000 people." There was also a shop ("Confectionery Sales (Urimosu) Hut").
Audiences pay 5 minutes to buy a ticket at the ticket office and enter from the Kidoguchi. General customers rent a floor covering at Nakakido and sit in the parterre. The price of the rug was 1 tatami mat for 1 momme and 3 minutes, thin edge (thin) for 7 minutes, and half tatami mat (hanjiyo) for 1 minute. The pier seats requested by high-class customers ranged from 5 to 17 momme, and the prices differed greatly depending on the location. The prices of Kido coins and floor coverings were almost the same as the local performances of top-class plays such as Takemoto Gidayu. Initially, 800 tickets were prepared, but it was so successful that the number was increased by 600 due to lack of tickets.
Income and expenditure of the box office
Various things (expense) 5th silver, of which 3 Osaka people are paid more than 300 silver
Deduction balance 16th silver (about 25 million yen?) However, flowers (congratulations) are excluded
From this historical material, it can be seen that Awaji Ningyo Joruri had a close relationship with Kamigata from early on, and in terms of its content and scale, it was at a high level comparable to the leading performing arts in the center.