Spread of Awaji Puppet

Awaji puppets that have been handed down to various places

Various puppet shows

Various types of traditional puppet shows are still handed down in Japan, such as Kokichi Nagata's "Revised Japanese Puppet Show", "Living Puppet Show" and Koshiro Uno's "Traditional Puppet Show Living in Modern Times". Has recorded puppet shows from all over the world.

Kokichi Nagata's "Living Puppet Show" (1983) classifies traditional puppet shows in various regions as follows, and lists the places of tradition.

○ Kugutsu system
Ten places such as Koyo Shrine in Fukuoka Prefecture, Koyo Shrine in Oita Prefecture, and Dekonobo Shrine in Hachimankohyo, Hyogo Prefecture.
○ Kojoruri system
Twenty-five places such as Kumawashi in Fukase, Ishikawa Prefecture, Bunya dolls from Sado, and Shiki Sanbaso from various places.
○ Thread manipulation
Ten places such as Yukiza and Takeda Ningyo-za in Tokyo.
○ Karakuri doll
Four places such as local lantern dolls and net fire.
○ Finger dolls, insert dolls, car dolls
Forty-two places such as finger puppets from various places, puppets such as Saeki lantern puppets from Kyoto Prefecture, and Hachioji car puppets.
○ Three-person work
Three-person puppet show from all over the world, 141 places

Many of the folklore sites (including abolition) mentioned by Nagata should be further corrected by subsequent research, but in any case, the three-person puppet show by Gidayubushi is overwhelmingly large. The three-person messenger began in earnest after the "Ashiya Doman Ouchi Kagami" in 1734. As a result, the expressive power of the puppets has dramatically improved, and the three-person puppet show has spread to various places.

The Awaji puppets, or the Awa puppets that originated from the Awaji puppets, played a major role in the spread of the three-person puppet show to various places. Awaji dolls have already toured a wide range of places since the 17th century, but from the 19th century, Awa dolls also began to appear in local entertainment, and it was said that the heyday was reached in the early middle of the Meiji era ("Revised Japanese doll play". 』).

Kokichi Nagata points out the points when visiting local puppet shows, and states that the following puppet shows can be judged to be of the Awaji system (Kume Soshichi "Awa and Awaji Puppet Shows").
(1) There is an old man's face of the formula Sanbaso. However, the ones from Izu and Mikawa were not directly reported by the puppeteers in Awaji.
(2) There are "Michikabo Biography" and "Circular One Bill".
(3) The original Joruri, which is peculiar to Awaji, such as "Oshu Hidehira Utsunohanamuko" and "Military Law Fujimi Saigyo" remains.
④ We use terms such as deco play, heart skewer, round eyes, actors, and Senjojiki. There is a structure of Senjojiki on the stage.
⑤ "Tanegashima" (I wonder if it has a large elevation angle) is a possibility of Awaji system.

Awaji puppet show currently active

Kokichi Nagata lists 141 places (of which 83 have been abolished and 58 still exist) where Gidayubushi has handed down three-person puppet shows. However, since then, more folklore sites have been confirmed, and more have been abolished. On the contrary, there are also puppet shows that have been revived, and these numbers must be greatly rewritten.

A puppet theater that is directly or indirectly transmitted from Awaji, or a puppet show that is strongly influenced by Awaji puppets, is called an Awaji puppet theater here. However, it is not easy to judge whether an individual puppet show is Awaji or not, even if there is clear evidence, and it is controversial.

Based on Mr. Nagata's above-mentioned two books, "Awa no Ningyo, Awaji no Ningyo" ("Awa and Awaji no Ningyo Drama"), national puppet theater summit materials, etc. I will give a play (however, Tsukichi's puppeteer is a tradition of only the Shiki Sanbaso, and should be classified as an old Joruri system, but in the past, external subjects were also performed, and it is currently active. This is the oldest example of Awaji doll propagation in the middle seat). Some of these are those that started with Awa puppeteers or those that have received guidance from them, and to be exact, they should be called the Awaji Awa system. Awaji dolls and Awa dolls are the same as the arts.

List of currently active Awaji puppet shows

Sagami puppet show Hase-za(Hase, Atsugi City, Kanagawa Prefecture)
It is said that it started about 300 years ago when the puppeteer in Awaji taught. There is a face of the white lieutenant and the black lieutenant of the ceremony Sanbaso.
Sagami doll play Ashigara seat(Mountain in Minamiashigara City, Kanagawa Prefecture)
It is said that in the 19th year of Kyoho, a couple of puppeteers from Awaji (Awa) stayed and taught the villagers. Ceremony Sanbaso tradition.
Oiwake doll(Otsuki, Sasagomachi, Otsuki City, Yamanashi Prefecture)
Did Awaji's puppeteer come in the eighteenth century with the "Michikabo Biography" and "Travel Ichifuda"? In the Taisho era, Awaji puppeteers taught.
Furuta doll(Kaminowa, Nakaminowa, Minowa-cho, Kamiina-gun, Nagano Prefecture)
Hisazo Ichimura of Awaji came to live in the Anei era, and Tokizo Yoshida came to live in the 7th year of Bunsei. There is a gold signboard of "Michikabo Biography" and Senga Morikawa. See another section.
Kuroda doll(Kamisatokuroda, Iida City, Nagano Prefecture)
Shigezaburo Yoshida of Awaji came to live in the Tenmei era. "Michikabo Biography", the oldest inscription, the puppet stage of the 11th year of Tenpo. See another section.
Imada (still) doll(Tatsue, Iida City, Nagano Prefecture)
The first in the first year of Hoei. There is a "Michikabo Biography", and although there is no record or folklore, it is possible that Awaji's puppeteer was involved.
Waseda doll(Saijo, Anan Town, Shimoina District, Nagano Prefecture)
The first one is unknown, but the onnagata shoulder plate says "Eight Years of Culture". Ceremony Sanbaso tradition. A Shinto ritual sent by a doll on the 15th day of the new year.
Anori puppet show(Ago-cho, Shima-gun, Mie Prefecture)
Awaji-style Sanbaso is handed down. Dedicated to the sea on the beach of Niwa on the second day of the new year. The puppet stage is also Awaji Awa system.
Tsukechi's okina mai(Tsukechi-cho, Ena-gun, Gifu Prefecture)
When the Awaji Puppet was performed in the second year of Tenna, he learned the old dance (Sanbaso) and rigorously handed down the ancient style. Originally, an external subject was also performed.
Ena Bunraku(Kaore, Nakatsugawa City, Gifu Prefecture)
A tradition that it started with Awaji's puppeteer. It is said that a master appeared during the Horeki-Tenmei period. The name of the head is Awaji style.
Oi Bunraku(Oicho, Ena City, Gifu Prefecture)
It started in 1945 by purchasing the head of Chikamatsuza in Nagoya (originally from Tokushima Izumitani Jiheiza). I wonder if it's Tengu Hisashi.
Hanbara doll(Hanbara, Hiyoshi-cho, Mizunami City, Gifu Prefecture)
It is said that during the Hoei and Shotoku eras, he was instructed by stopping the puppeteer in Awaji.
Makuwa Ningyo Joruri(Shimomakuwa, Kamimakuwa, Motosu-gun, Gifu Prefecture)
In folklore, it was the first time to be a single person (rush) during the Genroku period. The art is of Osaka type, but the puppet stage is Awaji Awa type with a stage return.
Tomita doll(Tomita, Biwa-cho, Higashiazai-gun, Shiga Prefecture)
It is said that in the 6th year of Tenpo, the Awa puppeteer left a set of puppets instead of the road silver. I wonder if it's Narushu.
Wachi Ningyo Joruri(Osako, Wachimachi, Funai District, Kyoto Prefecture)
It is said that it was performed with a doll that was sleeping in the dozo in the second year of Keio. Bunraku and Awaji instruction. Currently a special single person.
Awaji Puppet Theatre  (Fukura, Nandancho, Minamiawaji City, Hyogo Prefecture)
Buy a set of doll tools from Denjiro Yoshida. It is run by the Awaji Puppet Association and performs 24 hours a day, 7 days a week, except at the end of the year. See another section.
Shinden Ningyo Joruri Theatrical Performance Aioi Bunraku(Nitta, Chizu-cho, Yazu-gun, Tottori Prefecture)
It first started in the 7th year of the Meiji era due to the tour of Awaji puppets. After that, we welcome leaders from Awa and Bunraku.
Shimada doll(Shimada, Hikari City, Yamaguchi Prefecture)
It is handed down by the hereditary succession of 20 "heads" of the parishioners who were said to be 100 Shimada. I wonder if it was made by Manzo Oe and Kisaku Sasaya.
Yorii-za(Jinryo, Kamiyama Town, Myozai District, Tokushima Prefecture)
The first in the first year of Kaei. Originally Uemura Miyako Tayuza. Around the 25th year of the Meiji era, Ichikawa Hamazo in Awaji settled down and gave guidance. Ceremony Sanbaso tradition.
Katsuura-za(Hisakuni, Katsuura Town, Katsuura District, Tokushima Prefecture)
Suspended due to the Great Tenmei famine. Became a village owner in the 5th year of Meiji, and invited a master from Awaji. Ceremony Sanbaso tradition. Performed every fall on the Inukai Rural Stage.
Nakamura Sonotayu(Aratano-cho, Anan City, Tokushima Prefecture)
The first in the second year of culture. Handed down as a shared property in the Okabana / Saikouji area. Ceremony Sanbaso ・ Ebisu-mai Tradition. I wonder if Sahei Fukuyama.
Kisawa Village Entertainment Promotion Association(Sakashu, Kisawa Village, Naka District, Tokushima Prefecture)
Active in earnest from around 1890. Originally Sakashu Kyorakuza. Common people Ebisu-mai Tradition. The rural stage of Sakashu is an important tangible cultural property of the prefecture.
Sanuki Gennojoza(Omi, Mino-cho, Mitoyo-gun, Kagawa)
Formed by Tomitaro Miyoshi around the 30th year of the Meiji era. Originally Miyoshi Gennojoza. Ceremony Sanbaso ・ Ebisu-mai Tradition.
Naoshima Female Bunraku(Naoshima Town, Kagawa District, Kagawa Prefecture)
In the Edo period, there were five seats on Naoshima Island, but they were abolished, and in 1948, only women made a seat. Ceremony Sanbaso tradition.
Kosui-za deco play(Higashi Nagai, Enza-cho, Takamatsu City, Kagawa Prefecture)
Received a doll from a relative of the Takamatsu feudal lord, and began in the 4th year of Tenpo. It was also called the Fukusa doll of the circle.
Iyo Gennojoza(Furumitsumachi, Matsuyama City, Ehime Prefecture)
Inspired by the tour of Awaji-za, he buys a seat that is stuck at the box office. Originally, he toured Horaiza and Kyushu / Korean Peninsula.
Tawarazu Bunraku Sugaharaza(Tawarazu, Akehama-cho, Higashiuwa-gun, Ehime Prefecture)
It begins in the 5th year of Kaei for the good guidance of young people. We welcomed a master from Awaji, Osaka. There was "Seven Spears of Shizugatake" peculiar to Awaji.
Asahi Bunraku(Mikamecho, Nishiuwa District, Ehime Prefecture)
The first one around the 22nd year of the Meiji era. Buy the three seats. Declined in the Taisho era, reconstructed in 1945. Instructed by Gisaburo Wakatake and Sakae Toyoda of Awaji.
Otani Bunraku(Otani, Hijikawa-cho, Kita-gun, Ehime Prefecture)
In the 6th year of Kaei, the box office of Yoshida Denjiroza was canceled due to the mourning of Shogunate Kei, and it is said that the seats who stayed in Otani taught it.
Kihoku Bunraku(Iwatani, Hiromi-cho, Kitauwa-gun, Ehime Prefecture)
At the end of the Meiji era, he started buying dolls from Uemuraza in Awaji, which was stuck at the box office. Original Izumi doll.
Ikari doll(Ikari, Tagawa City, Fukuoka Prefecture)
First in the first year of Keio with a single-person skewer doll. Invited a puppeteer from Shimaya in Kitahara to learn Awaji-style maneuvers.
Sarayama doll(Sarayama, Hasami-cho, Higashisonogi-gun, Nagasaki Prefecture)
It is said that in the 18th year of Kyoho, he toured the Omura domain and saved the famine poverty. Awa puppeteer, later Kitahara puppeteer teaches.
Kitabaru Doll(Kitabaru, Nakatsu City, Oita Prefecture)
There is Gennosuke Toyomae in "Matsudaira Yamato Mamoru Diary", but the relationship is unknown. The centerpiece of Kyushu's puppet theater. Is Shiki Sanbaso the Awaji system?
Chiwata doll(Chiwata, Higashisonogi-cho, Higashisonogi-gun, Nagasaki)
"Kanei 2nd year" on the lid of the doll chest. Tradition of manipulation from Awa. Invited Uemura Gennojoza in the middle of the Meiji era. I wonder if it is old-fashioned and precious.
Seiwa Bunraku(Ohira, Seiwa Village, Kamimashiki District, Kumamoto Prefecture)
First in Kaei year. Later abolished, revived in 1945. Regular performance at Seiwa Bunrakukan. The seat Awaji Puppet Theatre I practiced shamisen for two years.
Yunokino doll(Kamino, Takachiho Town, Nishiusuki District, Miyazaki Prefecture)
The first one is unknown, but there is a tradition of origin in the Tenpo 4th year service book. I lived in an Awa puppeteer and received guidance.

Michinoku's Awaji Puppet-Shirobei Suzue in Morioka-

From Awaji to Morioka

In July 1987, there was a truly unexpected discovery for Ningyo Joruri researchers.

An extremely old style doll and ancient documents that are believed to date back to the 17th century were discovered at the residence of Hiroshi Suzue and Ai in Morioka City, Iwate Prefecture. Later, it became clear that he was a family member who also served as a sealer. The origin of Shirobei, the ancestor of the Morioka Suzue family, and the age of Kanei need to be verified for a while, but there is no doubt that the Awaji puppets spread to Morioka in the very early 17th century, and they are three-person puppets. The play is a discovery that overturns the conventional theory that Fukushima Prefecture is the northern limit and that it was not in the five Tohoku prefectures.

The Suzue family enshrined Sanjo Inari Shrine in the mansion, but as a result of asking the Iwate Prefectural Museum to decipher the old building tag when rebuilding the company, it was found that the ancestor Shirobei was an operator from Awaji. .. Then, when Mitsuaki Kadoya (currently a professor at Morioka University), a chief curator of the Prefectural Museum, who is an expert in folk entertainment, examined the spelling of the Suzue family, dolls and documents came out. Mr. Kadoya announced this discovery at the Folk Performing Arts Society, and summarized "Morioka's Master Shirobei and Awaji Puppets" ("Folk Performing Arts Research" No. 7, "Awaji Puppets and Iwate Performing Arts Group"), and the Suzue family. The doll has become widely known. This paper is largely based on Mr. Kadoya's paper. The Puppet Show Study Group (Chairman Akira Sato) immediately entered the investigation, and Katsumi Kano "Morioka / Suzue Shirobei Puppet" and Toru Saito "Puppet Show First Survey Report" (above, "Puppet Show History Study"). Excellent articles such as the first issue) were announced one after another.

Regarding the migration of Shirobei, the founder of the Suzue family, to Morioka, the "Kaku" dated May 15, 1748, wrote as follows.

Suzue Matagoro, Mihara-gun, Mihara-gun, Morioka, the ancestral country of the ancestors. Naokoe various arts dedication viewing. On the 4th of New Year's Day, the castle goes up to the river, and the god of gods is swordsman. Morioka Hachiman, Morioka Hachiman, and the mercy of the people in the territory of the territory.

In addition, on the building tag of the third year of Koka (1846),

"Our company Inari Daimyojin Kanei 15 tiger tiger Suzue Shirobei Fujiwara Masamori Awaji Kunijo Sanjo Eup Shimomori Tokoya"


According to these, Shirobei was the younger brother of Matagoro Suzue of Sanjo Village, and moved to Morioka in 1638 or 18th year of Kanei, and used various arts for viewing by Nao Genshige at the castle Nakamotomaru. As a result, this became a custom, and every New Year, he began to work in the castle as a "Do Kaorubo Morioka" (probably the Sanbaso), and he was allowed to entertain in the territory. Nanbu Shigenao, the second feudal lord of the Morioka domain, was influenced by his mother, who was the younger sister of Gamo Ujisato, and liked Kamigata culture. He is a person who was a "close samurai" ("Nanbu Shigenao").

Two volumes of "Michikabo Biography" were reported to the Suzue family. It is possible that Shirobei's migration during the Kanei era was based on the date "Kanei 15th Buntsuki 12th" in this "Michikabo Biography", so it cannot be immediately made a historical fact. As for the operation on the 4th day of the New Year of Kanei 18th year, no supporting evidence has been obtained so far.

According to a study by Mitsuaki Kadoya, the diary of the feudal lord, "Miscellaneous Books" (existing after March 21st, Kanei), contains records of operations in the castle after the first year of Kanbun (1661). However, there is no name of Shirobei in it, and it is said that the relationship with Shirobei is unknown. Shirobei appeared in "Miscellaneous Books" on July 11th, 1715.

By the way, four years ago, in January of the first year of Shotoku, Oharu, the adopted daughter of Hachisuka Hidamori Takashige, who was the younger brother of Mitsutaka, the fourth feudal lord of the Tokushima domain, joined Nanbu Toshimoto, the sixth feudal lord of the Morioka domain. ing.

Prior to this, it can be seen in "Tono Kojiki" (Horeki 13th year, 1763) that Shirobei performed at the Tono Hachiman festival at the end of Genroku (1688-1704).

one. In Tono, the start of the play is Koroka during the Enpo year. Edo Ayatsuri Tayu Toraya Eikan is often used as a spectacle for children, and is called by a mansion. With the participation of the actors of Gonrokuza, he filed a play. The actor also set up a play in Yawata, and there was also a time when other actors visited the theater, so the play was unsuccessful.

This is the oldest record other than the Suzue family document. From this, it can be seen that Shirobei established a foothold as a master at least during the Genroku period, and was performing in various parts of the territory, including the castle.

Shirobei who was treated well by the clan

In this way, the clan gave extraordinary treatment to Shirobeiza, who was based in Morioka. According to the above-mentioned "Kaku" and "Kaku" dated in October of the first year of Kan'en (1748), the character "Go" should be used in the New Year of the 5th year of Enkyo, and in June of the same year. Was allowed, and it was called "Misoza Genshirobei" from the review of cultural policy to the ban on its use in the third year of the Horeki calendar. Also, in March of the 5th year of Enkyo, he was asked to practice as an apprentice for performing arts in Edo, and went up to Edo.

However, around this time, the play did not prosper, and Shirobei wanted to acquire some other technique that would generate a stable income. Will come to do. Shirobei, who received direct encouragement from the feudal lord and honed his skills, later named himself "Morioka Goinjishi Futabaya Shirobei" along with "Ozamoto Shirobei", and concurrently works as a zamoto and a sealer.

What kind of activity was Shirobei (named Shirosa from the second generation) as a maneuvering book? Fortunately, there are "Registered Mail for Various Uses" (2nd year of Koka to 3rd year of Kaei) and "Registered Mail of Various Applications" (3rd year of Kaei to 3rd year of Meiji), which spell out the requests submitted to the inspection at the time of the box office. In total, you can learn about the entertainment and the comings and goings of entertainers for 25 years.

From this, let's take a look at the puppeteering event that was scheduled for 20 days from February 8th, 3rd year of Koka. Shirosa requested a box office in December of the previous year and hired entertainers from all over the world. There were 23 puppeteers from Osaka, 10 from Edo, 13 from Edo, 4 from Daio, 2 from Shamisen, 3 from Hayashi, and 1 from Tool. He hired an almost troupe-sized entertainer. By this time, the number of actors with seats would have decreased considerably. In this way, Shirosa, who secured enough personnel to fit the "Southern Daisou" on the turret curtain, fueled his pre-popularity with a taiko drum and a tatami mat, and set the curtain on the first day at Oizumiji Temple. The admission fee is "52 sentences of Kido sen, 22 sentences of Ueshiki sen, 14 sentences of 筵 sen, 〆89 sentences (mama), 350 sentences of upper pier, 400 sentences of middle pier, Shimozenroku. Hyakugo ". There is no description about the external subject. However, for some reason, there was a suspension of entertainment on the eleventh day, and the entertainers were leaving Koriyama early. In Koriyama, Fukushima Prefecture, there are Takakura puppets and Gyogo puppets, which were traditionally considered to be the northern limit of three-person puppet shows.

According to "Registered Mail for Various Uses" and "Registered Mail for Various Applications", full-scale registered mail was performed only twice in the 25 years from Koka to the Meiji era, including this box office. ing. Most of them were joruri, military storytelling, and rakugo by entertainers from other territories. Shirobeiza gradually lost his character as a maneuvering book and shifted the focus of management to an entertainment promoter. And in that, he gained the authority to bundle the entertainment entertainment in the castle, and became connected to the end of the clan system. This can be seen from the following historical materials.

Ichi Daisou I Goban Dolls Parallel Dance I Joruri Ichi Yoruri Ichi Military Storytelling I I Ukiyo Rakugoka
With Uenodori Misa, it is a scholarly ruler from ancient times. It's more than the above.
August 1st (Kaei 4th year) Shiro Shiro Sazenzaemon Gobansho
(From "Application Book")
Gozasoro, Funko, Shinnai Natoha Suzue Shiro Saburo, and Gozasoro at the geisha's head.
(From "Oku no Shiori")

After that, it is said that the book was continued until the early Meiji era. The "Application Reservation Book" ends with a box office request dated August 7, 1945. The stamping business continued until the predecessor Shirosa (Meiji 17-Showa 14).

Genealogy of the Suzue family

In the Suzue family's documents, there were four genealogy of one paper from the Tenpo / Koka period. The main points are as follows.


Among them, it is Shirosa Godai who knows the year of birth and death. According to the "Applications and Remains", he died at the age of 62 on the 8th day of the 7th year of Ansei (1860), so he was born around the 11th year of Kansei (1799). Also, at the time of his death, his child Shirobei (Shirosa 6th) was 41 years old, so Shirosa 5th had a son at the age of 21. Now, if we go back to the genealogy assuming that we had an average age of thirty until then, the first Shirobei was born around the Enpo period, and he settled in Morioka during the Kanei period. There will be a gap of almost half a century.

Uemura Hinata Shojo is the seat of Uemura Gennojoza, and it is said that Gennosuke III (who died in the first year of Jōō) was given the Hinata name by the feudal lord, but he has no kinship with Matagoro Suzue. The Suzue family in Awaji was a family who worked as a shoya in Sanjo village for generations. If you follow the genealogy with the ridge book of Sanjo Village in 1811,

Tarosuke 1st ― □ ― Gorobei 3rd (Tensho period) ― □ ― Sukegoro 4th (Genna period) ― Sukegoro 5th (Kanei period) ― □ ― Matagoro 7th (Enpo period) ― Matagoro Yatsushiro ( Hoei period) ・ ・ ・ Matagoro Genna (cultural period) -Next generation Mitsuzo (Tenpo period)

The originator of the Suzue family was originally in Suzue Village, Itano District, Awa Province (currently Suzue, Kawauchi Town, Tokushima City), and later in Inotsu (Tokushima Castle). He moved to Awaji when he was Tarosuke, and served the Shimada family (Jindaiurakabe, Mihara-cho) until the time of Gorobei III. And since the time of Sukegoro Shidai, he has been working as a shoya in Sanjo Village. If Shirobei's migration to Morioka was in the Kanei period, his older brother, Matagoro, is thought to be Godai Sukegoro or Rokudai (name unknown), but unfortunately the name of Shirobei cannot be confirmed in the historical materials on the Awaji side. In addition, the name of "Matagoro Shimohito Hikokuro, Dotaro" was mentioned as the runner at the time of the renewal of Enpo's ridge in the "Hashirinin name" of this ridge book. There is.

In the genealogy of the Suzue family, Matagoro Suzue is a "Zamoto Daikan", but in Awaji it is an unfamiliar title. Matagoro Suzue, who was a Shoya Sanjomura, was not directly engaged in puppeteering, but played a role as a consultant in the Zamoto organization in Mihara-gun. It is said that he was entrusted with the fact that he was given the gift in the first year of the former Kame, and he also helped the management of each book, which was not always smooth.

After the Meiji era, the Suzue family in Awaji continued with Sukegoro-Shinichi-Keiichi-Keiichiro. Sukegoro was appointed as the lyricist of Ikari Hachiman and Katada Hachiman during the Shinto national religion in the first year of the Meiji era. Shinichi has signed the Rokuzamoto's "Certificate of Regulations" (Meiji 21) on behalf of Gennosuke Uemura's retired seat. After that, Shinichi pulled Sanjo to run a ranch in Nishinomiya, and in Awaji, Shinichi's child, Kimiko Shimamoto, protected the graveyard of the Suzue family (commonly known as Matagoro Sanmai). Currently, the Suzue family lives in Mihara-cho, Minamikawachi-gun, Osaka Prefecture.

Discovered doll

Next, I would like to take a look at the dolls found in the spell. If it had been manipulated until the first year of the Meiji era, there must have been more new style puppets, but only five old style puppets and ten finger puppets (three of them) came out. There was only one fox puppet (only the puppet). The Suzue family was originally located in Kawaramachi near the Kitakami River, and many dolls were washed away or damaged by the great flood of 1883. He was severely damaged by the typhoon of 1952 and 23, and moved to a small high place about 200 meters away in the following year.

I am very interested in when the discovered dolls are, but unfortunately, the chronology of the dolls and heads has not been established due to the structure and style of the dolls and heads, as it is normal that there is no inscription in the early modern period. It is extremely difficult to pinpoint the exact date of production.

■ What was discovered in the spell

Sanbaso(Sanbaso / Sanbaso) /Chitose(Senzai, Chitose) /(Ebisu) /Lady-in-waiting woman and crown man/Finger puppet/"Book of the Suzue family"

After the discovery of the Suzue family doll, mutual visits between Awaji and Morioka continued. In late August, President Morikatsu of the Awaji Doll Association visited Morioka, in December the director Kaneko of the Morioka Prefectural Museum and the chief curator of Kadoya visited Awaji, and in May 1988, the Suzue family members visited. I visited Awaji and visited the grave of my ancestors with the people of the Suzue head family in Osaka.

And almost a year after the discovery, at the traditional art appreciation party on July 28th. AWAJI NINGYÔ JÔRURI The performance was realized, and the Minamiawaji Junior High School Folk Entertainment Club performed "Taju" and "Tsubozaka" at the Iwate Prefectural Civic Center. In addition, "Tokushima Special Deko Ningyo Michinoku Ryuten" produced by NHK Tokushima Broadcasting Station was broadcast on August 19, 1990.

Ina Basin puppet show-Awaji puppet show in Shinshu-

Inatani, a treasure trove of puppet shows

The Tenryu River basin that flows out of Lake Suwa is lined with mountains in the Southern Alps to the east and the Central Alps to the west, forming a vast valley. This valley is called Ina Valley. Since ancient times, it has prospered as a side road of Nakasendo and as a river traffic route of the Tenryu River, and various eastern and western artifacts have come and gone.

Ina Valley is a treasure trove of folk entertainment, and is known as an area with an extremely high density of puppet shows. It was said that there were puppet shows in each village during the Edo period, and there are many puppet theater traditions. Many of them have already been abolished, but among them, the four seats of Furuta dolls, Kuroda dolls, Imada dolls, and Waseda dolls are still active and keep the tradition of Ina dolls. The Ina Puppet Theater Preservation Council has been organized to work on handing down techniques, and young successors have also grown up, and the activities of each seat have become more active in recent years. In addition, new attempts are being made (Imada puppets), such as working on creative external subjects and performing with the light of Japanese candles to reproduce the play atmosphere of the Edo period (Imada doll). In March 1994, Shiza appeared in the 4th folk entertainment performance "Furusato no Ningyo Drama" at the National Bunraku Theater.

There are many excellent wonders in Ina Valley that exceed 800 points. Heads are consumables for commercial books, and old heads that have been damaged in Awaji or obsolete due to the fashion of large heads have been discarded one after another, but in Inatani, heads are important as a cultural heritage of the region. It has been treated and generally stored in good condition. The diverse and expressive sculptures before the heads were similar look very fresh to the familiar eyes of the Awaji Awa dolls and the similar heads of Bunraku. Among them, there are many flocked hairs dating back to the 18th century, old ones that leave the remains of the emba stick type, and some of them are from the Edo period with internal inscriptions such as the author and year of production. It is an indispensable material for studying the year. I wonder if there is the oldest inscription in Japan (Genbun 2nd year, 1737) that is currently confirmed (Kuroda Ningyo).

In the precincts of Suwa Shrine in Kamisatokuroda, Iida City, there is the oldest and largest puppet stage in Japan (important tangible folk cultural property of the country) built in 1840. Also, in Waseda, a rare folk event of sending gods by dolls is still handed down.

Along with the question, it is the existence of abundant documentary materials that attracts the attention of researchers. In particular, the enormous collection of documents of the Karasawa family, who were the guardians of Furuta puppets, is a valuable historical source not only for the history of Ina puppets but also for the history of Ningyo Joruri in general.

Ina Ningyo Shiba is also a pioneer in academic research and research, and has achieved many excellent results. From the research of Shinichi Kusakabe in the old days, in recent years, the research centered on local researchers such as Yoshio Ito, Masahiro Takei, Hiroto Sakurai, Fumiko Kinoshita, the late Michihiko Kinoshita, etc. The research has resulted in the efforts of the Iida City Museum of Art Survey Report 1 "Inatani no Ningyo Drama [Kashira Catalog Ledger]" and 2 "Same [Document Catalog]", and is the highest level of puppet theater research in the region. Is shown. The following description is largely due to the research report, especially the writing and teaching of Mr. Yoshio Ito.

Rokusaburo Ichimura, Zamoto

Awaji puppeteers were deeply involved in the development of the Ina Basin puppet show. Rokusaburo Ichimura is known as a book that widely performed Ina Basin and Mino. Kuzo Ichimura and Tokizo Yoshida taught Furuta dolls, Shigezaburo Yoshida taught Kuroda dolls, Chigazo Morikawa taught Kono dolls, and Kuzo, Shigezaburo and Sengazo ended their lives locally. The "Michikabo Biography" that they conveyed is still carefully handed down.

The first puppeteer in Awaji to set foot in Ina Valley is Rokusaburo Ichimura, as far as historical materials can confirm. Rokusaburo is a book that lasted for at least two generations. However, at that time, it can be seen from the "Hikida Family Document" that he was sued by Sanjo-mura's seat in the 5th year of the Horeki calendar because he raised the sign of "Kan'en Moronoji", which was prohibited from use. In addition, Rokusaburo's name appears to be the signature of the agreement document of the Zamoto organization in the "Hiketa Family Document". He signed the "Kaku" in the 6th year of the Genbun (1741) and the "Kaku" in the 3rd year of the Horeki (1753). Prior to the prestigious Ichimura Rokunosuke, he signed the first of the five seats of Ichimura.

Rokusaburo first appeared in Inatani's record in March 1724. Invited by the Ogasawara clan, the flagship of Izuki (Miho, Iida City), he performed Ningyo Joruri and received three minutes as Hanayo ("Ogasawara Clan's Diary"). Mr. Ogasawara seems to have liked Ningyo Joruri, and in 1846 he encouraged Ningyo Joruri for the daily comfort of the villagers.

Rokusaburo probably passed through Nakasendo, crossed the Seinaiji Pass from Nakatsugawa, and entered Ina Valley. Rokusaburo was good at this area, and the record of the next box office remains.

Kyoho 9th year (1724)Izuki (Miho, Iida City, Nagano Prefecture)
Kanpo 3rd year (1743)Mirokudo (Yamada-cho, Mizunami City, Gifu Prefecture)
Horeki 3rd year (1753)Kama-bran Jizo-do (Ori Kama-bran, Inatsu-cho, Mizunami-shi)
Horeki 4th year (1754)Takamatsu Kannon-do (Shimooda, Oda-cho, Mizunami City)
Horeki 6th year (1756)Doji Yamada Village (Doji Yamada Town, Mizunami City)
Tsukiyoshi Village (Tsukiyoshi, Akiyo-cho, Mizunami City)
Oroshi Village (Oroshi Town, Toki City)
Horeki 12th year (1762)Wataru Ogawa (Takagi Village, Shimoina District, Nagano Prefecture)
Tenmei 3rd year (1783)Sanno, Ashima Anyo-ji Temple (Takagi Village)

Rokusaburo is believed to have left Awaji in the latter half of the Horeki (1751-63), and after traveling to various countries, reached Ina Valley, where he died. Rokusaburo's nephew, Kuzo Ichimura, wrote in 1809 as follows (summary).

Fifty years ago, when his uncle Ichimura Rokusaburo went to various countries, he brought a biography of Michikabo from Kunimoto, and went to Ezo (Hokkaido) as well as the countries, and then to our country (Shinshu). He died in the vicinity of Iida (Iida City, Nagano Prefecture).

The "Michikabo Biography" that Rokusaburo carefully possessed was handed over to his nephew Kuzo. Rokusaburo's Hokkaido box office has no supporting evidence so far, but it is surprising if it is true. In any case, Rokusaburo was not bound by the framework of Awaji's book organization, and was a book with a positive attitude and enterprising spirit in search of new customers.

So far, the only clues to know the trends of Rokusaburo in Ina Valley are these historical materials, and the year of death is unknown. No grave has been found. Yoshio Ito said, "Assuming that Awaji's puppeteer did not let go of the biography of Michikabo until just before his death, Rokusaburo's death was around the time of Anei when Kuzo visited Kamikoda, or in the Showa era (1764) before that. ~ 72) ..... The record of the third year of Tenmei (1783) is unlikely to be Kuzo's uncle. Isn't it the successor to the Rokusaburo troupe or another person with the same name? " Catalog] ”), and since it does not appear to have stayed in the village where the puppet show is located, Rokusaburo is a leader with a great deal of consideration for like-minded people, avoiding competition with the locals. It is presumed that it was not.

Furuta Doll and Hisazo Ichimura

Furuta puppets are located in Nakaminowa Kaminofuruta, Minowa-cho, Kamiina-gun, and are located in the northernmost part of the Ina puppet theaters. Furuta puppets are the most abundant historical materials in the local puppet theater, and many related documents are left in the Karasawa family (Yago Oitaya), which prospered in Nakama (distribution industry).

There are two theories about the beginning of Furuta dolls, the 14th year of Kyoho (1729) and the 5th year of Genbun (1740). After that, in the third year of Kanpo (1743), the activities of Furuta dolls became full-scale when young people spent money and bought a set of quality doll tools from Nagoya. The titles of the performances from the following year are recorded in "Hikifuda" (tentative title), and from the first year of Kansei (1789), a handwritten play number called "Hikifuda" remains. There are 23 Hikifuda and 4 Hikifuda, and only Furuta dolls have the remaining Hikifuda.

Among the performance records of the Furuta puppets recorded by Katsuaki, the one that is particularly noteworthy is the "Engi no Mikado Hikyoku no Biwa" at the festival in August of 1745. It is a performance. The premiere of this Joruri was on April 3rd of the same year in Osaka and Akashi Echigo Jōza, and in Furuta, the latest external title was set in just four months after the premiere in Osaka. "Kusuno Kimukashibanashi" is performed about half a year after its premiere at Osaka Takemotoza on January 14, 1746. Around this time, in Osaka, it was said that "the puppets are becoming more and more popular and Kabuki is nothing. The heyday of Ningyo Joruri was reached, but Inatani was also dominated by tremendous Joruri.

Under these circumstances, Rokusaburo Ichimura's nephew, Kuzo Ichimura, visited Furuta. "The origin of the festival" (7th year of Bunsei) wrote:

From around Yasunaga (1772-80), Ichimura Kuzo Shinza collapsed, and the residence of the village, Taihei Tenka. Ukuzo Yoshifuku Rokumi died of illness in the 6th year, so he has been suffering from illness year after year from his husband.

Kuzo is said to have collapsed and settled in Kamikoda, and played the Sanbaso of Taihei Tenka every early spring, but he was probably the actor of his uncle Rokusaburo. Looking at the mention of Sanbaso, it seems that Kuzo started the Sanbaso of Furuta in earnest. In the Karasawa family document, there is "Shiki Sanban Kamikoda-eup (Mura) Karasawa Mitsuson possession" which wrote the verse of Sanbaso. Although there is no calendar year, Mitsunori Karasawa was born in the early part of the Horeki calendar, so it can be considered that the verses at the time of Kuzo are accurately recorded. Since the Sanbaso in each region was orally transmitted, it was often misrepresented, but this document, which accurately conveys the verses of the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, is an indispensable first-class material for comparative research on the Sanbaso. ..

According to the article of Anei 3rd year (1774) of "Shinrei Yaguchi no Watari", "Shinrei Yaguchi no Watari (I of Shinrei Yaguchi), this year's Yori teacher Kuzo", it seems that Kuzo taught Furuta dolls in earnest from around this time. .. Kuzo's name can be seen as a "puppet caretaker" in the first and second year of Kansei (with a play number), and as a "puppet president" in the 5th to 3rd year of culture.

In the 7th year of Kansei (1795), a fixed stage for a puppet show was built in about 10 cars. However, in the 11th year of the Kansei era (1799), the shogunate announced that "it is no longer possible to stand out from the crowd regardless of the entertainment play or anything else", and it became impossible to operate at the festival. However, the people of Furuta keep secretly manipulating at their homes waiting for the New Year's day, saying that young people should not be concerned about wrongdoing. Even though it was secret, the ranking was issued, and it was so crowded that it was recorded as "Random Bear" in the "Yearly Diary".

Around this time, Furuta dolls had another problem. The young people were separated from the puppet show and were fascinated by Kyogen (Kabuki). It seems that no young people participate in the operation of Kansei 9th year, and the young people will start playing Kyogen from the following year. Above, Ningyo Joruri was pushed by Kabuki, as symbolized by the retreat of both Takemoto and Toyotake in the Showa period, but Furuta puppets also sensitively reflected the central trend.

Nevertheless, Furuta's manipulator took up new crops one after another under the guidance of Kuzo and was active. In the 5th year of culture (188), he was asked to manipulate for three days at Takatoo Narisai Hoko (Mama) Mochimachi and took a big hit. In the following six years, he performed the Inari Festival ceremony at the Kansuke Kuruwa in Takato Castle, and received two sake and key money from the magistrate. There is no name of Kuzo who was in the sickbed in the ranking at this time.

In November of the 6th year of Bunka (1809), Kuzo Ichimura handed over the "Michikabo Biography" that he had taken over from his uncle Rokusaburo to the Karasawa family. Kuzo's father became a tradesman, and his father's trace was not inherited.

Kuzo died on the 6th of New Year in 1810. In December of the following year, his wife, Haru, died. The tomb is located in the Karasawa family's graveyard and is enshrined under the joint name of the couple.

From August 14th to the 3rd night of the 13th year of Bunka (1816), the people of Furuta performed in Minamiden Village. "Yu Ichimura Kuzoyuki Osamu and No., Kuzo Former Onno Grace" ("Ichiban Yearly Diary")

Tokizo Yoshida, a puppeteer from Awaji, came to Kamikoda in early New Year in 1824. Tokizo's visit was welcomed, and he immediately began to practice manipulating, saying "fortunately." It is possible that Tokizo brought about the Karasawa family's document, "Awaji Manipulation Ichifuda no Ji".

In Awaji, there were twenty-three villages under the territory of Kurobei Inada, the castle lord of the Hachisuka clan, the lord of the Tokushima domain, but the return bridge village does not actually exist. Is it a creation inspired by Ichijomodo Bridge?

There is a gold signboard of Senga Morikawa in Furuta. Sengazo is an Awaji puppeteer who taught Kawano puppets (Toyooka-mura, Shimoina-gun). The relationship between him and the Furuta doll does not appear in the document at all, but there is no doubt that there was some relationship. Yoshio Ito points out that he may have been the leader of Furuta before Kuzo.

Kuroda Ningyo and Shigezaburo Yoshida

Kuroda Ningyo is located in the former Shimokuroda Village, now Kamisatokuroda, Iida City. It is one of the most active seats in Shimoina, and it has more than 100 heads. The head of an old woman named "Genbun Yin Fire Snake (1737) February Yamashiro Onomura Takemoto Matsuhosaku" is the oldest inscription currently confirmed.

According to folklore, Kuroda Ningyo first appeared in the Genroku period (1688-1703), and a priest named Masami Takamatsu, who had a taste for entertainment, told young people in the neighborhood such as Gidayu and Shamisen. Is said to be the beginning. There is a theory that Masami Makai is from Awaji, but there is no confirmation. After that, a stage of three and a half ken was built in the precincts of Suwa Shrine, and a puppet show was performed as a substitute for kagura at the annual festival. Kuroda's puppet show was handed down from generation to generation by villagers who paid a large amount of money and joined the Myojin Ko, and no one outside the course was allowed to touch it.

Many specialized puppeteers have come to Ina Valley, but the people of Kuroda also actively accepted outpatient specialists to hone their skills. During the Tenmei era (1781-88), Shigezaburo Yoshida, a puppeteer from Awaji, came to Kuroda, followed by Monsaburo Kiritake from Osaka (3rd year from Tenpo) and others.

In the 10th year of Tenpo (1839), the old puppet stage of Suwa Shrine was demolished, and by the construction of Zenbei Izumiya, the builder of Sakuracho 2-chome (Iida), the following 11 years, the frontage eight rooms, the depth four rooms, and the two-story building The new stage has been completed. It is the oldest and largest puppet stage in existence (important tangible folk cultural property of the country).

According to the "Myojin Kou Pledge Rule" written by Shirotaitsuki (72 years old at that time) in the 16th year of the Meiji era.

Our village Masamitsuan Ni Residence Cital Masakaku Makai To (Un) Zen priest Ha doll education ancestor Hitoya. During the year of the heavens, Awaji no Kuni Yori Yoshida Shigezaburo, a puppet entertainer, came to Murauchi E, and this person is the residence of this village. After that, a gein named Yori Osaka Yori Kiritake Monsaburo came to Tenpo 3rd year, and he also lived in this village and died during the year of Bunkyu. Both of the right names are ants at the Onenji Temple. A doll named Shigezaburo Yoshida. After his death, he was a secretary of Awaji Puppet, a secretary of Awaji Puppet, and a secretary of Awaji Puppet. Naosuke Kitahara, Nari, the lord of Mitsuru, and Arunoya, a treasured shite awarded by this person.

The "Puppet Nemoto Biography" possessed by Shigezaburo Yoshida is the "Michikabo Biography". The people of Kuroda also revered that it was a secretary of all the puppet theaters and was difficult to obtain. The "Michikabo Biography" was delivered to the village after Shigezaburo's death and was treasured by Naosuke Kitahara, but unfortunately it seems that the location is unknown and cannot be seen.

When Shigezaburo was active in Kuroda, Furuta dolls had Hisazo Ichimura. It seems that the two people from the same town cooperated with each other, and Shigezaburo is also helping the Furuta dolls to entertain.

According to the numbering of Furuta dolls, Shigezaburo said, "Oumi Genji Senjin Yakata Ninth" and "Kusunoki Minatogawa no Kassen" in the "Day Waiting Play" in the third year of culture. ) ”“ Go Taiheiki Shiraishi Akira (Gotai Heiki Shiroishi Banzuke) ”, played the shamisen under the names of Shigezaburo Tsuruzawa and Shigezaburo Nozawa (the puppeteer is Hisazo Ichimura). At the Inari Festival of Kansuke Castle in the 6th year of Bunka, I sent dolls of "Shiroishi Banashi" and "Yaguchi no I" (Kuzo is sick). Due to the performance, he died in the new year of the following year). After Kuzo's death, in the seven-year-old culture day-waiting operation "Kinoshita Kageha Zamagassen" and the eight-year day-waiting operation "Kosenjo Kanekake no Matsu" I work as a puppet president.

Shigezaburo had no heir son, and in 1813 he adopted Shokichi, the adopted son of Rokuemon in Kamikota Village. This can be seen from the "Send one bill" addressed to the owner of Shimokurota village from the owner of Kamikoda village. Rokuemon is a branch of the famous Karasawa family in Kamikoda (the older brother of the Yatsushiro family in the Karasawa family). Shigezaburo was accepted by the people of Kamikoda so much that he had a relationship with the prestigious family.

Shigezaburo died on September 23, 1821. The tomb is located at Onenji Temple in Shimokuroda. The name of the priest is "Akiyama Ryogo Zen Gate". A magnificent tomb of natural stone shows how much he was loved by the villagers.

According to Mr. Masayoshi Mugishima, the former chairman of the Kuroda Ningyo Preservation Society, the tombs of Shigezaburo and Monzaburo were in different places in Onenji Temple, but in 1982, there was a story that they wanted to enshrine them all in one place. , I asked Onenji Temple to look out over the Suwa Shrine where the puppet stage is located, move it to the best place overlooking the entire Shimokuroda Ward, and protect the grave at the preservation society ( Masakichi Mugishima "Kuroda Ningyo Memorandum"). The sincerity of the people of Kuroda, who will never forget their gratitude and respect for their masters even after hundreds of years, can be seen.

In 1945, the 5th generation Kiritakemonzo from Awaji visited Kuroda to investigate the head. When he saw the performance of Kuroda's Sanbaso, he missed it because it was the same as Awaji's Sanbaso.

Kono Doll and Senga Morikawa

The Kono doll was on the left bank of the Tenryu River, in Kawano, Toyooka-mura, Shimoina-gun. It has already been abolished, and 60 items are stored in the Toyooka Village History and Folklore Museum. In Kono, Awaji puppeteer Chikazo Morikawa taught. It is about the same time as Hisazo Ichimura of Furuta and Shigezaburo Yoshida of Kuroda. However, there is nothing to record the activities of Senga dolls and Senga dolls, only the "Michikabo biography" of Senga brewery and the letter of transfer.

Certificate of transfer
I. In fact, Masaya, who has inherited the essence of the sword, is in the middle of the Awaji powder-free stock, and there is no difference from the outside, such as the play. , The destination is Gozasoro Co., Ltd., March, 5th year of culture
Kento Senga ㊞
Konomura Denbeiden ㊞
(Seven names omitted from Konomura)
Fukuyomura left Goemon ㊞
(Collection of Mr. Shigeto Takikawa, Toyooka-mura, Shimoina-gun)

The term "intention" here means "biography of Michikabo". Sengazo, who was old and had no relatives, handed over the "Michikabo Biography" that he had possessed for many years in the 5th year of culture (1808) to nine people in Kono Village and Fukuyo Village. The people of Kono attached a piece of paper to the box, stating, "No matter where you go, in the unlikely event of a fire, take this box out as soon as possible." I have told you carefully.

Sengazo seems to have something to do with the Furuta dolls in Kamiina, and the gold signboard of the name of Sengazo is reported to Kamikoda.

Imada's "Michikabo Biography"

The "Michikabo Biography" transmitted to Ina Valley has been thought to be the three volumes of Furuta, Kuroda, and Kono, but the fourth volume was discovered in the Okumura family in Tatsue, Iida City. Tatsue is the location of Imada dolls. There is no record or folklore about who told this to Imada, but it is possible that Awaji's puppeteers were involved in the history of Imada puppets. At the end of this "Michikabo Biography", there is "Chuin Dainagon Tsumura Sir (red seal) Mihara-gun Uemura Ichimura Sanjo-mura", but there is no village called Uemura in Mihara-gun.

It is inferred that Yoshio Ito was the one who led the troupe or was the president of the troupe, because there are not a few "biography of Michikabo" left. Certainly, looking at the activities of those who have managed the box office as a president by setting new external subjects one after another, they are not just a single puppeteer, they are familiar with all three industries, and they are bright in the situation of the central Joruri world. He must have been a well-informed person and must have been in a considerable position in his former position.

The name of the runner (Hashirinin) in the ridges of Sanjo Village and Ichimura mentions the names of the six puppeteers who went to Shinshu to go to Shinshu and went missing there. There are many runners whose origins are unknown, and it seems that more puppeteers actually entered Ina Valley. Kokichi Nagata also uses Awaji's puppeteers as Matagoro Ichimura, Keizo Ichimura, and Choshiro Yoshida, who appear to be in the Banzuke of Furuta ("Revised Japanese Puppet Show"). In addition, Takeo Murasawa's "Entertainment of Ina" is said to be from Awaji by Tsurutao Takemoto (Masakichi Tsuruzawa) of Fukuyo Village, but neither is confirmed. In Ina Valley, which actively accepted professional puppeteers, puppeteers from all over the country are entering the gorge in search of a safe place to live.