Spread of Awaji Puppet

Awaji dolls that have been passed down to various places

various puppet shows

Various types of traditional puppet theater are still handed down in various parts of Japan, and puppet theater from various regions is collected in Nagata Heikichi's Revised Japanese Puppet Theater and Living Puppet Theater, and Uno Koshiro's Traditional Puppet Theater Living in the Modern Age.

Kokichi Nagata's ``Living Puppet Shows'' (1983) categorizes traditional puppet plays from various regions as follows, and lists the places where they have been passed down.

○Kugutsu type
There are ten locations in total, including the divine sumo wrestling at Furutate Shrine in Fukuoka Prefecture and Koyou Shrine in Oita Prefecture, and Dekonobou at Hohokabe Shrine in Hyogo Prefecture.
○Old Joruri series
25 locations, including Kumasashi in Fukase, Ishikawa Prefecture, Bunya dolls in Sado, and Shiki Sanbaso from various places.
○Thread manipulation
Ten locations including Yukiza and Takeda Puppet Theater in Tokyo.
○Karakuri doll
There are four locations including the earth lantern doll and net fire.
○ Finger puppets, insert puppets, and car puppets
Finger puppets from all over the world, Kyoto prefecture's Saeki lantern dolls, Hachioji Kuruma dolls, and more can be found at 42 locations.
141 local three-person puppet shows

Although many of the traditional sites listed by Nagata (including those that were abolished) should be added to and corrected through subsequent research, the overwhelming majority are three-man puppet plays based on Gidayubushi. The use of three people began in earnest after ``Ashiya Doman Ouchi Kagami'' in 1734. As a result, the expressive power of puppets developed dramatically, and three-person puppet shows spread throughout the country.

Awaji dolls, or Awa dolls, which originated from Awaji dolls, played a major role in the spread of three-person puppet shows to various regions. Awaji dolls had already toured widely around the country since the 17th century, but from the 19th century Awa dolls also began to appear in local performances, and are said to have reached their peak in the early to mid-Meiji period (``Revised Japanese Puppet Theater'') ”).

Kokichi Nagata gives tips for visiting regional puppet shows, and states that the following puppet shows can be judged to be of Awaji origin (Soshichi Kume, ``Puppet Shows of Awa and Awaji'').
① There is an old man mask of Shiki Sanbaso. However, the ones in Izu and Mikawa were not passed down directly by puppeteers in Awaji.
②There are ``Biography of Dokunbo'' and ``Metsutsu Ichisatsu''.
③Original copies of joruri, which are said to be unique to Awaji, remain, such as ``Oshu Hidehira Hatsuno Hanamuko'' and ``Gunpo Fujimi Saigyo.''
④Uses terms such as deco play, shinkushi, marume, yakusha, and senjojiki. There is a Senjojiki structure on the stage.
⑤ "Teppo-zashi" (I wonder if the angle of elevation is large) is likely to be from the Awaji system.

Awaji puppet theater currently in operation

Nagata Kokichi lists 141 traditional sites of three-person puppet theater based on Gidayu (83 of which have disappeared, and 58 still exist). However, since then, many more traditional sites have been confirmed, and the number of places that have disappeared has also increased. Conversely, some puppet theater has been revived, so these figures must be significantly revised.

Puppet plays that were directly or indirectly transmitted from Awaji, or puppet plays that are strongly influenced by Awaji dolls, are referred to here as Awaji-kei puppet plays. However, even if there is clear physical evidence, it is not easy to judge whether an individual puppet show is of Awaji origin or not, and opinions are divided.

Based on Mr. Nagata's aforementioned two books, ``Awa Dolls, Awaji Dolls'' (``Puppet Shows of Awa and Awaji''), and materials from the National Puppet Show Summit, the main puppets that are currently in operation and are judged to be of Awaji origin. (However, Tsukechi's Onmai is currently only passed down as Shikisanbaso, and should be classified as an old Joruri type. However, in the past, foreign works were also performed, and it is not currently active.) (I mention this because it is the oldest example of the spread of Awaji dolls among the Nakanoza). This includes those that were started by puppeteers in Awa, or those that received their guidance, and can more accurately be called the Awaji Awa lineage. Awaji dolls and Awa dolls are the same performing arts.

List of currently active Awaji puppet plays

Sagami Puppet Show Haseza(Hayaya, Atsugi, Kanagawa Prefecture)
It is said that it was first taught by a puppeteer in Awaji about 300 years ago. Shiki Sanbaso has the white and black shikijo masks.
Sagami Puppet Theatre Ashigara(Mountains in Minamiashigara City, Kanagawa Prefecture)
It is said that in the 19th year of the Kyoho era, a puppeteer couple from Awaji (Awa) stayed and taught the techniques to the villagers. Shiki Sanbaso tradition.
Oiwake doll(Oiwake, Sasago-cho, Otsuki City, Yamanashi Prefecture)
There are ``Dokunbo Biography'' and ``Metsutsu Ichifuda'', indicating that puppeteers from Awaji came to Japan in the 18th century. It was taught by a puppeteer in Awaji during the Taisho period.
Furuta doll(Nakaminowa Kamifuruta, Minowa Town, Kamiina District, Nagano Prefecture)
During the An'ei era, Ichimura Kyuzo from Awaji came to live here, and in 1824, Yoshida Tokizo came to live here. There is a gold signboard of Morikawa Senkazo in the "Dokunbo Biography." See separate article.
Kuroda doll(Kamigo Kuroda, Iida City, Nagano Prefecture)
Shigezaburo Yoshida of Awaji came to live here during the Tenmei era. ``Dokunbo Biography'', perhaps the oldest private inscription, is a puppet stage from Tenpo 11. See separate section.
Imada doll(Tatsue, Iida City, Nagano Prefecture)
First published in the first year of Hoei. There is a ``Biography of Dokunbo,'' and although there are no records or traditions, it is possible that Awaji puppeteers were involved.
Waseda doll(Saijo, Anan-machi, Shimoina-gun, Nagano Prefecture)
The first time it was made is unknown, but the shoulder board of a female performer says "Bunka 8 (1812)". Shiki Sanbaso tradition. A Shinto ritual to send off the gods using dolls on the 15th day of the New Year.
Anori Puppet Show(Anori, Ago Town, Shima District, Mie Prefecture)
The Awaji-style Sanbaso has been handed down. On the second day of the New Year, it is dedicated to the sea at Niwahama Beach. The puppet stage is also Awaji Awa style.
Old man dance of Tsukechi(Tsukechi Town, Ena District, Gifu Prefecture)
He learned Okinai (Shiki Sanbaso) when the Awaji Ningyo performance was held in 1987, and strictly passed on the ancient style. Originally, foreign titles were also performed.
Ena Bunraku(Kaore, Nakatsugawa City, Gifu Prefecture)
Legend has it that it began with a puppeteer in Awaji. It is said that some masters appeared during the Horeki and Tenmei periods. Kashira's nickname is Awaji Kaze.
Oi Bunraku(Oimachi, Ena City, Gifu Prefecture)
It began in 1951 with the purchase of the Kashira of the Chikamatsuza Theater in Nagoya (originally owned by the Tokushima Izumiya Jiheiza Theater). Many Tengu Hisashi.
Hanbara doll(Hanabara, Hiyoshi-cho, Mizunami City, Gifu Prefecture)
It is said that it began during the Hoei and Shotoku periods when puppeteers from Awaji were kept and trained.
Makuwa Puppet Theatre(Shimomasuwa, Shinjo-machi, Motosu-gun, Gifu Prefecture)
According to legend, it first appeared in the Genroku period as a one-man puppeteer (tsukkomi). The art is Osaka-style, but the puppetry used on stage is Awaji-Awa-style, with a stage return.
Tomita doll(Tomita, Biwa-cho, Higashiasai-gun, Shiga Prefecture)
It is said that the festival began in 1886, when a puppeteer in Awa left a set of puppets in place of a street bank. There is a name for Narushu.
Wachi Puppet Theater(Osako, Wachi-machi, Funai-gun, Kyoto Prefecture)
It is said that the performance was performed using dolls that had been stored in a storehouse in 2013. Bunraku, Awaji instruction. Currently, I am a special person.
Awaji Puppet Theatre  (Fukura, Nandancho, Minamiawaji City, Hyogo Prefecture)
Purchased a complete set of doll tools for the Yoshida Denjiroza. Managed by the Awaji Doll Association, the show is open every day of the year except at the end of the year. See separate section.
Shinden puppet theater Aioi Bunraku(Shinden, Chizu-cho, Yazu-gun, Tottori Prefecture)
It first appeared in the 7th year of Meiji due to the Awaji doll tour. Afterwards, we will welcome instructors from Awa and Bunraku.
Shimada doll(Shimada, Hikari City, Yamaguchi Prefecture)
Among the 100 Shimada parishioners, the head of the clan was twenty households, inherited as hereditary. The heads were Oe Manzo and Sasaya Kisaku.
Yoriiza(Kinryo, Kamiyama-cho, Meishi-gun, Tokushima Prefecture)
First published in the first year of the Kaei era. Former Uemura Todayuza. Around 1890, Hamakura Ichikawa of Awaji settled there and taught there. Shiki Sanbaso tradition.
Katsuuraza(Kyokuni, Katsuura-cho, Katsuura-gun, Tokushima Prefecture)
Interrupted due to the Great Tenpo Famine. In the 5th year of Meiji, he became a village owner and invited masters from Awaji. Shiki Sanbaso tradition. Performances are held at Inukai Rural Stage every fall.
Nakamura Sonodayu Theatre(Niino-cho, Anan City, Tokushima Prefecture)
The first episode of the second year of Bunka. It has been handed down as a common property of the Okahana/Saikoji area. Shiki Sanbaso・ Ebisu-mai Legend has it that Fukuyama Sahei had a head.
Kisawa Village Entertainment Promotion Association(Sakashu, Kizawa Village, Naga District, Tokushima Prefecture)
It became fully active from around 1900. Motosakashu Kyorakuza. common people Ebisu-mai The rural stage of Sakashu is an important tangible cultural property of the prefecture.
Sanuki Gennojoza(Omi, Mino-machi, Mitoyo-gun, Kagawa Prefecture)
It was formed by Tomitaro Miyoshi around the 1900s. Originally Miyoshi Gennojoza. Shiki Sanbaso・ Ebisu-mai Tradition.
Naoshima Women's Bunraku(Naoshima Town, Kagawa District, Kagawa Prefecture)
During the Edo period, there were five troupes on Naoshima Island, but they were abolished, and in 1944, an all-female troupe was formed. Shiki Sanbaso tradition.
Kosuiza Deco Theater(Higashinagai, Maruzacho, Takamatsu City, Kagawa Prefecture)
The festival began in the 4th year of Tenpo, when a relative of the lord of the Takamatsu domain received a doll. There was a time when it was also called the Enza no Fukusa doll.
Iyo Gennojoza(Furumitsu Town, Matsuyama City, Ehime Prefecture)
Inspired by the Awajiza Theater's tours, he bought a theater that was struggling to make a living. The original Horaiza Theater toured all the way to Kyushu and the Korean Peninsula.
Tawarazu Bunraku Sugahara Theatre(Tawaratsu, Akehama-cho, Higashiuwa-gun, Ehime Prefecture)
It started in 1852 to guide young people. The master was from Awaji, Osaka. There was the "Seven Spears of Shizugatake" unique to Awaji.
Asahi Bunraku(Asari, Sanpe-machi, Nishiuwa-gun, Ehime Prefecture)
It first appeared around 1890. Purchase Sanza. It declined during the Taisho period, and was revived in 1939. Instructed by Gisaburo Wakatake and Kokuei Toyoda from Awaji.
Otani Bunraku(Otani, Hijigawa-cho, Kita-gun, Ehime Prefecture)
It is said that it began in the 6th year of the Kaei era, when performances at the Yoshida Denjiroza Theater were canceled due to the mourning of Shogun Ieyoshi, and a member of the theater who stayed in Otani taught it.
Kihoku Bunraku(Iwaya, Hiromi Town, Kitauwa District, Ehime Prefecture)
It began at the end of the Meiji period by purchasing the puppets of Awaji's Uemuraza Theater, which was at a slump. Motoizumi doll.
Ikari doll(Ikari, Tagawa City, Fukuoka Prefecture)
First created in the first year of Keio as a one-man skewer puppet. Invited a puppeteer from Shimaya-za in Kitahara to learn Awaji-style puppetry.
Sarayama doll(Sarayama, Hasami-machi, Higashisonogi-gun, Nagasaki Prefecture)
It is said that in the 18th year of the Kyoho era, he toured the Omura domain and rescued the poor people of the famine. Instructed by Awa puppeteers and later Kitahara puppeteers.
Kitabaru doll(Kitahara, Nakatsu City, Oita Prefecture)
Buzen Gennojo is mentioned in the ``Matsudaira Yamatonokami Diary,'' but the relationship is unknown. A central figure in puppet theater in Kyushu. Is Shiki Sanbaso of Awaji origin?
Chiwata doll(Chiwata, Higashisonogi Town, Higashisonogi District, Nagasaki Prefecture)
``Kanei 2nd year'' is written on the lid of the doll chest. Manipulation has been handed down from Awa. In the middle of the Meiji period, he invited Gennojo Uemura. The old style is very valuable.
Seiwa Bunraku(Ohira, Seiwa Village, Kamimashiki District, Kumamoto Prefecture)
First episode in the Kaei era. It was later abolished and revived in 1928. Regular performances at Seiwa Bunrakukan. The seat staff Awaji Puppet Theatre I trained on the shamisen for two years.
Yunokino doll(Ueno, Takachiho-cho, Nishiusuki-gun, Miyazaki Prefecture)
It is unknown when it first occurred, but there is a legend about its origin in the Hokacho of the 4th year of Tenpo. He had a puppeteer from Awa live there and receive guidance from him.

Michinoku Awaji dolls-Suzue Shirobeeza in Morioka-

From Awaji to Morioka

In July 1987, a researcher of Bunraku puppet theater made a truly unexpected discovery.

Very old-style dolls and ancient documents thought to date back to the 17th century were discovered at the residence of the Suzue Hiroshi Ai family in Morioka City, Iwate Prefecture, and these findings suggest that the Suzue family was a manipulator who moved from Sanjo Village in Awaji during the Kanei era. It was later revealed that his family was also a seal maker. Although the origin of Morioka Suzue family's ancestor Shirobei and the Kan'ei era will require some investigation, there is no doubt that Awaji dolls were spread to Morioka as early as the 17th century, and are known as three-man puppets. This discovery overturns the conventional wisdom that plays are limited to Fukushima prefecture in the north and that they do not exist in the five prefectures of Tohoku.

The Suzue family has enshrined Sanjo Inari Shrine in their mansion, but when rebuilding the shrine, they asked the Iwate Prefectural Museum to decipher the old ridge tag, and as a result, they discovered that their ancestor Shirobei was a master puppeteer from Awaji. . When Mitsuaki Kadoya (currently a professor at Morioka University), chief curator of the Prefectural Museum and an expert on folk performing arts, researched the spellings passed down by the Suzue family, he found dolls and documents. Mr. Kadoya announced this discovery at the Folklore Performing Arts Society, compiled ``Morioka Manipulator Shirobei and Awaji Puppet'' (``Folklore Performing Arts Research'' No. 7, ``Awaji Puppet and Iwate Performing Arts Group''), and published the Suzue family. The doll became widely known around the world. This paper relies heavily on this paper by Mr. Kadoya. The Puppet Theater Research Group (chairman Akira Sato) also immediately began an investigation, including Katsumi Kano's ``Morioka Shirobei Suzue Puppet'' and Toru Saito's ``First Survey Report on Suzue Family Puppet'' (hereinafter referred to as ``Puppet Theater History Research''). Excellent essays such as the first issue (first issue) were published one after another.

Regarding the emigration of Shirobei, the founder of the Suzue family, to Morioka, ``Kaku'' dated May 15, 1748, writes as follows:

My ancestors were born in Suzue Matagoro, Sanjo-mura, Mihara-gun, Tanshu province. His brother, Shirobei, who had the same name, had mercy on the Morioka official Naka-sama. He was given residence in the 18th year of the Kan'ei era, and Genshige, the lord of Yamashiro, lived in Gohonmaru on the fourth day of the New Year. Introduced Naogonge to various arts. On the 4th day of the New Year's Day, Tamemikichi is visited by the castle's inner river, and the Dokunbo temple is visited. Yoshinori Morioka Chinju-no-Osatsuri Shrine: Since last year, the Omachi Magistrate has been receiving stamps every year to show mercy to all areas within the territory of the Goryoku.

Also, on the ridge plate of 1846,

"This shrine is the Inari Daimyojin shrine of the 15th year of the Kanei era, the Dog and Tiger god. It was the place where the ancient ancestor, Shirobei Suzue, Fujiwara Masamori, served in Sanjo-mura, Awaji Province, and was guarded."


According to these accounts, Shirobei was the younger brother of Suzue Matagoro of Sanjo Village, and moved to Morioka in 1638 or 1638, where he presented various arts to Lord Minamoto Shigenao in the castle's inner citadel. This became a custom, and from then on he performed the "Dokunbo Mawashi" (presumably Sanbaso) in the castle every New Year, and was also allowed to perform within his domain. Lord Minamoto Shigenao was Nanbu Shigenao, the second lord of Morioka Domain, and perhaps influenced by his mother, the sister of Gamo Ujisato, he was fond of Kamigata culture, and "invited several dozen entertainers, bestowed stipends on them, and made them his attendants" (Nambu Shiyo).

The Suzue family had two volumes of the "Dokubo Denki." The date of Shirobei's relocation during the Kan'ei period may have been based on the date in the "Dokubo Denki," which is "12th day of the 15th year of the 16th month of the 16th year ...

According to the research of Mr. Mitsuaki Kadoya, records of manipulation within the castle appear in the diary of the feudal chief retainer, ``Missho'' (existed from March 21, Kan'ei 21), from 1661 onwards. However, Shirobei's name is not among them, and his relationship with Shirobei is unknown. Shirobei appears in ``Miscellaneous Books'' on July 11, 1715.

Incidentally, four years ago, in January of the first year of Shotoku, Oharu, the adopted daughter of Takashige, Hida no kami, Hachisuka, who was the younger brother of Mitsutaka, the fourth lord of the Tokushima domain, sent a palanquin to Toshiki Nanbu, the sixth lord of the Morioka domain. ing.

Prior to this, the Tono Kojiki (Horeki 13, 1763) shows that Shirobei performed at the Tono Hachiman festival at the end of the Genroku period (1688-1704).

one. The Kabuki (manipulator) spectator play in Tono begins in Koroka during the Enpo year. The Edo Ayatsuri Tayuu Toraya Eikan was often called to his mansion to see his children, and he was seen there (omitted). After that, the play of the Ayatsuri Kabuki was performed at this place, and at the time of the End of the Genroku Hachiman Festival, the Morioka Kabuki. Actors from the Gonrokuza theater participated and proposed a play. Next, the actors and actresses of Shirobeiza, who played the role, began to perform in Yahata, and there were also times when other ryo actors were invited to participate, and the production of plays did not continue.

This is the oldest record other than the documents of the Suzue family. It shows that Shirobei had established himself as a puppeteer at least during the Genroku period, and was performing around the castle town and other parts of the domain.

Shirobei received warm treatment from the clan.

Thus, the domain gave extraordinary treatment to the Shirobei-za, which was based in Morioka. According to the aforementioned "Kaku" and the "Kaku" dated October 1748, in January of the 5th year of Enkyo, the group was bestowed with 100 pieces of gold, and in June of the same year, they were permitted to use the character "Go", and they called themselves "Osoza Moto Shirobei" until the use of the character was prohibited following a review of cultural policy in the 3rd year of Horeki. In March of the 5th year of Enkyo, they were ordered to train as apprentices in the arts in Edo, and so they went there.

However, around this time Shirobei's acting business was not prospering, and he wanted to acquire some other skill that would provide him with a stable income.Through the help of the clan, Shirobei became a disciple of Hikobei, a seal maker, and began training in stamp carving. You will start to do this. Shirobei honed his skills with direct encouragement from the lord of the domain, and from then on, he called himself ``Morioka Goinbanshi Futabaya Shirobei'' along with ``Souza Genshirobei'' and worked concurrently as a ``Souzahon'' and a stamp maker.

What kind of activities did Shirobei (he took on the name Shirosa from the second generation) as a master of operations? Fortunately, there is a ``Miscellaneous Registration Book'' (Koka 2nd year - Kaei 3rd year) and a ``Mishogi Registered Notebook'' (Kaei 3rd year - Meiji 3rd year) that contain the requests submitted to the examiner at the time of the performance. In total, you can learn about 25 years of entertainment and the comings and goings of entertainers.

Let's take a look at the puppet show that was scheduled to take place over twenty days from February 8, 1840. Shirosa applied for the show in December of the previous year, and hired performers from all over the country. Thirteen puppeteers came to Morioka, three from Osaka and ten from Edo, along with four stage actors, two shamisen players, three musicians, and one prop actor. Twenty-three performers came to Morioka. They hired performers for almost an entire troupe. By this time, the number of resident performers had probably decreased considerably. In any case, Shirosa had secured enough performers to perform the "Nambu Taisou" on the turret screen, and, with the help of hanging signs and drums, he stirred up the excitement in the early hours of the first day at Daisenji Temple. The admission fee was "52 mon for the entrance fee, 22 mon for the upper box, 14 mon for the straw mat, 89 mon for the final box, 350 mon for the upper box, 400 mon for the middle box, and 600 mon for the lower box." There is no mention of the title. However, for some reason, on the 11th, the show was suspended, and the performers quickly left for Koriyama. Koriyama in Fukushima Prefecture is known for its Takakura puppetry and Yukiai puppetry, and was traditionally considered the northernmost limit of three-person puppet theater.

According to the ``Misho Registered Mail Book'' and ``Misho Registered Mail Book'', there were only two full-fledged theater performances, including this one, in the 25 years from Koka to the Meiji era. ing. Most of them were simple joururi, military commentary, and floating stories performed by entertainers from other territories. Shirobei-za gradually lost its character as a theater company and shifted its management focus to being an entertainment promoter. During this time, they gained the authority to control the entertainment activities in the castle town, and became connected to the end of the feudal system. This can be seen from the following historical materials.

- Grand puppet show - Goban puppet and dance - Tameyo Joruri - Military tales - Ukiyo-raku
With Unodori Gosata Ni, it has been ruled by the ruler since ancient times. Ouchijo Hosho Joko or above.
August 1st of the Pig (Kaei 4th year) Operation book: Shirosa Zenzaemon's guardhouse
(From "Application Registered Mail Book")
Ruri Umi, Funko, and Nato Niuchi, Suzue Shirosaburo-dono and the Monkey, prayed at the Geisha no Kashira (entertainment applicant).
(From “Oku no Shiori”)

After that, it is said that sozabon continued until the early Meiji period. The ``various application letter'' ends with a request for performance dated August 7, 1993. The seal business continued until the time of the previous generation, Shirosa (1880-1943).

Suzue family genealogy

Among the documents of the Suzue family, there were four genealogy sheets from the Tenpo and Koka eras. The main points are as follows.


Of these, the year of birth and death is known for Shirosa Godai. According to the ``Shogan Registration Book,'' he died on the 8th day of the first month of the 7th year of Ansei (1860) at the age of 62, so his birth would have been around 1799. Furthermore, at the time of his death, his son Shirobei (6th Shirosa) was 41 years old, so it means that 5th Shirosa had a legitimate son at the age of 21. Now, if we assume that children were born at the average age of 30 up until then, and trace back the genealogy, the first Shirobei was born around the Enpo period, and he settled in Morioka during the Kan'ei period. There will be a gap of almost half a century.

Uemura Hyuga Shojo is the zamoto of the Uemura Gennojoza, and it is said that the third generation Gennojo (died in 1986) was given the Hyuga name by the feudal lord, but he has no blood relation to Suzue Matagoro. The Suzue family of Awaji was a family that had served as the village headman in Sanjo Village for generations. Tracing the genealogy based on Sanjo Village's ridgebook dated 1811, we found that

Tarosuke the first - □ - Gorobei the third (Tensho period) - □ - Sukegoro the fourth (Genna period) - Sukegoro the fifth (Kanei period) - □ - Matagoro the seventh (Enpo period) - Matagoro the eighth ( (Hoei period)... Current generation Matagoro (Bunka period) - Next generation Jitsuzo (Tenpo period)

The original Suzue family lived in Suzue Village, Itano District, Awa Province (present-day Suzue, Kawauchi Town, Tokushima City), and later in Inotsu (Tokushima Castle Town). At the time of Tarosuke, he moved to Awaji and served the Shimada family, the lords of Urakabe Castle (Kamidai Urakabe, Mihara Town) until the third generation of Gorobei, but due to the downfall of his master family during the Tensho era, he became a Ronin and moved to Sanjo Village. Since the time of the fourth generation Sukegoro, he has been working as the village headman of Sanjo Village. If Shirobei moved to Morioka during the Kanei period, his older brother, Matagoro, is thought to be Sukegoro the fifth generation or the sixth generation (name unknown), but unfortunately, Shirobee's name cannot be confirmed in historical materials on the Awaji side so far. In addition, in the ``Hashirinin Famous Men'' of this ridgebook, the name ``Matagoro Genin Hikokuro, Dotaro'' is listed as a runner at the time of Enpo's ridgeline change. There is.

In the Suzue family's genealogy, Matagoro Suzue is listed as ``zamoto magistrate,'' but this is an unfamiliar title in Awaji. Matagoro Suzue, who was the headman of Sanjo Village, was not directly involved in puppetry, but he played an advisory role in the zamoto organization of Mihara District. It is said that he was entrusted with the blessings given to him in the first year of Genki, and he also lent his strength to the management of each zamoto, which was not always going smoothly.

The Suzue family of Awaji has continued from Sukegoro to Shinichi to Keiichi to Keiichiro since the Meiji era. Sukegoro was appointed as the priest of Ikari Hachiman and Katada Hachiman when Shintoism was made the national religion in the early Meiji era. Shinichi signed the "Constitution" (Meiji 21) of the Rokuzahon as a representative of Uemura Gennosuke's retirement residence. After that, Shinichi left Sanjo to run a ranch in Nishinomiya, and in Awaji, Shinichi's child Shimamoto Kimiko looked after the graveyard of the Suzue family (commonly known as Matagoro Zammai). Currently, the Suzue family lives in Mihara Town, Minamikawachi District, Osaka Prefecture.

discovered doll

Next, I would like to take a look at the dolls discovered in Tsuzura. If puppetry had continued until the beginning of the Meiji era, there would have been many more new style puppets, but what appeared were five old style puppets and ten finger puppets (including three). There was only one fox head. The Suzue family was originally located in Kawaramachi near the Kitakami River, and it is said that many dolls were washed away or damaged in the great flood of 1903. It suffered severe damage from the typhoons of 1942 and 1943, and moved to its current location on a slightly elevated site about 200 meters away the following year.

It is of great interest to know when the discovered dolls were made, but unfortunately, since early modern kashira usually do not have internal inscriptions, it is not possible to establish a chronology based on the structure or style of the dolls or kashira. It is extremely difficult to pinpoint the year of production.

■ What was discovered inside the box

Sanbaso(Sanbaso/Sanbansou)/Chitose(senzai, chitose) /Ebisu(Ebisu)/A lady-in-waiting woman and a man in a crown/finger puppet/"Suzue family's traditional calligraphy"

After the discovery of the Suzue family dolls, mutual visits between Awaji and Morioka began one after another. In late August, Awaji Doll Association President Masaru Mori visited Morioka, and in December, Director Kaneko and Chief Curator Kadoya of the Morioka Prefectural Museum visited Awaji, and in May 1963, members of the Suzue family visited Morioka. He visited Awaji and visited the graves of his ancestors with members of the Suzue family in Osaka.

Almost a year after the discovery, at a traditional art appreciation event on July 28th, AWAJI NINGYÔ JÔRURI The performance was realized, and the Nandan Junior High School Folk Entertainment Club performed ``Taiju'' and ``Tsubozaka'' at the Iwate Prefectural Civic Hall. Furthermore, ``Tokushima Special Deko Doll Michinoku Wandering'' produced by NHK Tokushima Broadcasting Station was broadcast on August 19, 1990.

Ina Valley Puppet Show-Awaji-kei puppet play in Shinshu-

Inaya, a treasure trove of puppet shows

The basin of the Tenryu River, which flows from Lake Suwa, forms a vast valley with the Southern Alps to the east and the Central Alps to the west. This valley is called Ina Valley. Since ancient times, it has prospered as a side road of Nakasendo and a river traffic route for the Tenryu River, and various cultural artifacts from East and West have come and gone.

Ina Valley is a treasure trove of folk performing arts, and is known for its extremely high density of puppet theater. In the Edo period, it was said that every village had its own puppet theater, and there are many puppet theater sites. Most of them have already disappeared, but four of them, Furuta Puppet Theater, Kuroda Puppet Theater, Imada Puppet Theater, and Waseda Puppet Theater, are still active today and are protecting the tradition of Ina puppet theater. They organized the Ina Puppet Theater Preservation Council to work on the tradition of the art, and young successors have been nurtured, and each troupe has become more active in recent years. They are also trying new things, such as working on creative themes and performing by candlelight to recreate the atmosphere of the Edo period (Imada Puppet Theater). In March 1994, the four troupes appeared in the National Bunraku Theater's fourth folk performing arts performance, "Hometown Puppet Theater."

Ina Valley has over 800 outstanding swords still in existence. For commercial zamoto, kashira are expendable items, and in Awaji, damaged kashira and old kashira that have become obsolete due to the trend for larger kashira are being discarded one after another, but in Inadani, kashira are cherished as local cultural heritage. It has been handled and is generally in good condition. The diverse and expressive shapes of the kashira before they were made into analogs appear very fresh to eyes accustomed to the similar kashira of Awaji Awa dolls and Bunraku. Among them, there are many old ones with flocked kashira dating back to the 18th century and remains of the emba-bo style, and there are also some from the Edo period that have internal inscriptions such as the author and year of production. It has become an indispensable resource for researching the year. The oldest confirmed inscription in Japan (1737) is also located in Ina Valley (Kuroda doll)

On the grounds of Suwa Shrine in Kamigo Kuroda, Iida City, there is Japan's oldest and largest puppet stage (a nationally important tangible folk cultural property), built in 1840. Furthermore, at Waseda University, a rare folk event of sending off the gods using dolls is still passed down to this day.

Along with Kashira, what attracts the attention of researchers is the existence of a wealth of historical documents. In particular, the vast collection of documents of the Karasawa family, who were the guardians of Furuta dolls, are valuable historical materials not only for the history of Ina dolls, but for the history of doll joruri in general.

Ina puppet theater has also been pioneering in terms of academic investigation and research, and has produced many excellent results. Starting from the research of Shinichi Kusakabe in the past, in recent years we have carried out steady efforts centered on local researchers, including thorough investigation of kashira and documents by Yoshio Ito, Masahiro Takei, Hiroto Sakurai, Ayako Kinoshita, and the late Michihiko Kinoshita. This research has borne fruit in the Iida City Museum of Art research report 1, ``Ina Valley Puppet Show [Kashira Catalog]'' and 2 ``The same [Document Catalog]'', which is the highest level of puppet play research in the region. It shows. The following description owes much to the same investigation report, especially the writings and teachings of Mr. Yoshio Ito.

Rokuzaburo Ichimura Zamoto

Awaji puppeteers were deeply involved in the development of Inadani puppet theater. Rokuzaburo Ichimura is known as the zamoto who extensively promoted Inadani and Mino. Hisazo Ichimura and Tokizo Yoshida taught Furuta dolls, Juzaburo Yoshida taught Kuroda dolls, and Sengazo Morikawa taught Kono dolls, and Kuzo, Juzaburo, and Sengazo all ended their lives in the area. The stories they handed down, such as the ``Biography of Dokunbo,'' are still cherished and handed down to this day.

As far as historical sources can confirm, the first Awaji puppeteer to set foot in Ina Valley was Rokusaburo Ichimura. Rokusaburo is a troupe that has continued for at least two generations, with his predecessor Rokusaburo starting his career in Koshu (Shiga Prefecture) around 1749, and his son Rokusaburo starting his career in Mino (Gifu Prefecture) in 1754. However, at that time, it is known from the ``Hikita Family Documents'' that he was sued by the zahon of Sanjo Village in the 5th year of the Horeki era because he put up a sign that read ``Master of various arts and abilities,'' which was prohibited to use. In addition, Rokuzaburo's name appears in the ``Hikita Family Documents'' as his signature on the bylaws of the Zamoto organization. It seems that it was a very influential original, as it signed "Sōdashin Ichisatsuji" in the 6th year of Genbun (1741) and "Kaku" in the 3rd year of Horeki (1753). He signed the first of Ichimura's Goza books before the prestigious Rokunojo Ichimura.

Rokuzaburo first appears in the records of Inadani in March 1724. He was invited by the Ogasawara family, the hatamoto of Izuki (Miho, Iida City), to perform a ningyo joruri performance and received 30% of the flower fee (``Ogasawara Family Goyosho Gonikki''). The Ogasawara clan seems to have liked puppet theater, and in 1846, they promoted puppet theater for the daily comfort of the villagers.

Rokusaburo probably traveled along the Nakasendo route, crossed the Seinaiji Pass from Nakatsugawa, and entered Ina Valley. This area was Rokuzaburo's specialty, and there are records of the following performances.

Kyoho 9 (1724)Izuki (Miho, Iida City, Nagano Prefecture)
Kanpo 3rd year (1743)Mirokudo (Yamada-cho, Mizunami City, Gifu Prefecture)
Horeki 3rd year (1753)Kamanuka Jizo Hall (Osato Kamanuka, Inazu-cho, Mizunami City)
Horeki 4th year (1754)Takamatsu Kannondo (Shimooda, Odamachi, Mizunami City)
Horeki 6th year (1756)Yamada Village Doji (Yamadacho Douji, Mizunami City)
Tsukiyoshi Village (Tsukiyoshi, Akiyocho, Mizunami City)
Shimoishi Village (Shimoishi Town, Toki City)
Horeki 12th year (1762)Ogawawatari (Takagi Village, Shimoina District, Nagano Prefecture)
Tenmei 3rd year (1783)Sanno, Ashima Anyoji Temple (Takagi Village)

Rokusaburo is thought to have left Awaji in the latter half of the Horeki era (1751-1763), traveled around various countries, and eventually arrived in Ina Valley, where he spent the rest of his life. Rokusaburo's nephew, Ichimura Kyuzo, wrote the following in Bunka 6 (1809) (summary):

Fifty years ago, when my uncle Rokuzaburo Ichimura went to various countries, he brought Dokunbo Biography from Kunimoto, and performed in various countries as well as Ezo (Hokkaido), and then to our country (Shinshu). He crossed the river and died of old age near Iida (Iida City, Nagano Prefecture).

``Dokunbo Biography'', which Rokuzaburo cherished, was passed on to his nephew Kyuzo. Although there is currently no corroborating evidence that Rokuzaburo's work was performed in Hokkaido, it would be surprising if it were true. In any case, Rokusaburo was an active and enterprising zamoto who was not bound by the framework of the Awaji zamoto organization and traveled far and wide in search of new customers.

These historical materials are the only clues to understanding Rokusaburo's movements in Inadani, and the year of his death is also unknown. No grave has been found. Yoshio Ito says, ``Judging from the fact that Awaji's puppeteers did not part with Dokunbo's biography until just before his death, Rokuzaburo's death occurred around the Yasunaga period when Kyuzo visited Kamifuruta, or earlier in the Showa period (1764). ~72)...The records from 1783 indicate that he is Kyuzo's uncle. He could be the successor of the Rokusaburo troupe or someone else with the same name.'' In addition, Rokuzaburo does not appear to have stayed in the village where the puppet show is located, so Rokuzaburo is a leader who has the great ability to avoid conflicts with the local community and to be considerate to his like-minded people. It is presumed that it was not.

Furuta Dolls and Ichimura Kyuzo

Furuta Ningyo is located in Kamifuruta, Nakaminowa, Minowa Town, Kamiina District, and is located in the northernmost part of the Ina Ningyo troupes. Furuta dolls have the richest historical materials among local puppet shows, and many documents related to the Karasawa family (trade name: Oita-ya), which flourished in the Chuuma (distribution industry), have been preserved.

There are two theories about the origin of Furuta dolls: the 14th year of Kyoho (1729) and the 5th year of Genbun (1740). After that, in 1743, when young people pooled their money together to buy a set of pawn doll tools from Nagoya, the activity of Furuta dolls became serious. The titles of performances from the following year are recorded in ``Zumonozaku'' (tentative title), and handwritten play rankings known as ``Hikifuda'' from 1789 also remain. There are currently 23 puppets for puppets and 4 for Jikyogen, and only the Furuta doll has any remaining cards.

Among the detailed records of performances of Furuta dolls, what is particularly noteworthy is the performance of the ``Engi no Mikado Hikiyoku no Biwa'' at a festival in August of 1745. It is a performance. The first performance of this Joruri was held at the Akashi Echigojoza in Osaka on April 3 of the same year, and Furuta put this latest foreign theme on stage just four months after the first performance in Osaka. ``Kusunoki Mukashi Banashi'' was first performed on January 14, 1746, at Takemoto-za Theater in Osaka, and was performed about six months later. Around this time, in Osaka, it was said that ``manipulation became increasingly popular, and Kabuki was nothing. , Ningyo Joruri entered its heyday, and Ina Valley was also dominated by incredible Joruri.

Under these circumstances, Rokuzaburo Ichimura's nephew, Hisazo Ichimura, visited Furuta. The ``Originki of Festival Operations'' (Bunsei 7) writes as follows.

From around the Yasunaga era (1772-1780), the ruler of Tanshu, Ichimura Kyuzo Shinza, retired from residence in this village, and since the third period of peace and peace in the world, he has been doing his best in early spring every year. Yoshikuzo Ukuzo passed away from an illness in 1999, and due to his death, he became less productive year after year than his husband.

Kyuzo settled in Kamifuruta after his troupe collapsed, and is said to have played Sanbaso in Tenka Taihei every year in early spring, but he was probably originally an actor in his uncle's Rokusaburo-za. Judging from the references to Sanbaso, it seems that Kyuzo began to practice Furuta's Sanbaso in earnest. Among the Karasawa family documents is ``Shiki Sanban, Kamifuruta Village, Possessed by Mitsuson Karasawa,'' who wrote the poem Sanbaso. Although there is no record of the year, since Mitsunori Karasawa was born around the beginning of the Horeki era, it can be assumed that the words and poems from the time of Kyuzo are accurately recorded. Because the Sanbaso of each region was passed down orally, it was often misrepresented, but this document, which accurately conveys the words and phrases from the 18th to 19th centuries, is an indispensable first-class document for comparative research on Sanbaso. .

In the An'ei 3rd year (1774) entry of "Shrine Yaguchi Watashi", it is written that "Kyuzo was the master from that year," so it seems that it was around this time that Kuzo began to teach Furuta puppets in earnest. His name appears as "puppet caretaker" in the play rankings from the first and second years of the Kansei era, and as "puppet chief" in the play rankings from the fifth year of the Kansei era to the third year of the Bunka era.

In 1795, a standard stage for puppet shows was built with a size of about 10 ryo. However, in 1799, the shogunate ordered that ``entertainment plays or anything else that attracts attention to the crowd is prohibited,'' and they were no longer allowed to be used at festivals. However, the people of Furuta secretly continue to manipulate the young people in their homes as they wait for the New Year, in order to prevent them from committing evil acts. Although it was a secret, a ranking was published, and it was so popular that it was recorded as a ``big hit'' in the ``Annual Diary.''

Around this time, the Furuta dolls were having another problem. Young people were turning away from puppet theater and were captivated by Kyogen (Kabuki). It appears that not a single young person took part in the manipulations in 1999, and they began performing Kyogen the following year. In Kamigata, puppet joruri was being dominated by kabuki, as symbolized by the decline of both Takemoto and Toyotake theaters during the Showa period, but Furuta puppets also sensitively reflected the trends in the central region.

Still, Furuta's operations were active, picking up new products one after another under Kyuzo's guidance. In the fifth year of Bunka (1808), he won a jackpot by performing tricks for three days at the Takato Nari Matsuri Hoko (Mamamochi) town. The following year, in 1999, he performed the Inari Festival ritual at the Kansuke Kuruwa in Takato Castle, and was given sake and two ryo coins by the magistrate. The name of Kyuzo, who was sick in his bed, was not listed in the ranking at this time.

In November of this Bunka 6th year (1809), Hisazo Ichimura handed over to the Karasawa family the ``Dokunbo Biography,'' which he had inherited from his uncle Rokusaburo and which he had cherished. Kyuzo's son became a merchant and did not succeed his father.

Kyuzo died on the 6th day of the first month of the following year, 1810. In December of the following year, his wife Oharu died. The grave is located in the Karasawa family cemetery and is enshrined in the joint names of the couple.

For three nights starting from Leap August 14th in 1816, members of Furuta held a performance in Minamidono Village. ``Yu Ichimura Kuzo's commemoration and name is a return of the former Kuzo's kindness'' (``Ichiban Yearly Diary'')

Early in the New Year of 1824, Tokizo Yoshida, a puppeteer from Awaji, came to Kamifuruta. Tokizo's visit is welcomed, and he immediately begins practicing his manipulations, saying it's a blessing. It is possible that Tokizo brought about the Karasawa family document ``Awaji Sosentsu Ichisatsu no Ji.''

There were 23 villages in Awaji that belonged to Kurobei Inada, the chief retainer of the castle of the Hachisuka family, the lord of the Tokushima domain, but Momoduhashi Village did not exist. Is this a creation inspired by Ichijo Momodobashi?

There is a gold signboard of Morikawa Sengazo in Furuta. Sengazo was a puppeteer from Awaji who taught Kawano dolls (Toyooka Village, Shimoina District). Although there is no mention of his relationship with the Furuta dolls in the documents, there is no doubt that there was some sort of relationship between him and the Furuta dolls. Yoshio Ito points out that he may have been Furuta's instructor before Kyuzo.

Kuroda Dolls and Yoshida Juzaburo

Kuroda dolls are located in the former Shimokuroda Village, now Kamigo Kuroda, Iida City. It is one of the most active theaters in Shimoina, with over 100 pieces in its collection. The old female kashira, which is written as ``Genbun Nichomi (1737) Nigatsu Yamashiro Ono Village, Takemoto Matsuho,'' is the oldest kana known to date.

According to legend, Kuroda dolls first appeared during the Genroku period (1688-1703), when a priest named Shogaku (Shotake) Manami of Takamatsu Shomeian, who had a taste for entertainment, introduced gidayu, shamisen, etc. to young people in the neighborhood. It all started when I taught him. There is a theory that Masami Shokaku was born in Awaji, but there is no confirmation. After that, a six-room, three-and-a-half-room stage was built in the grounds of Suwa Shrine, and puppet shows were performed in place of kagura at the annual festival. Kuroda's puppet shows were passed down from generation to generation by villagers who paid large sums of money to join the Myojin-ko, and no one outside the group was allowed to touch them.

Many professional puppeteers have come to live in Ina Valley, but the people of Kuroda also actively accepted foreign experts to hone their skills. During the Tenmei era (1781-1788), the puppeteer Juzaburo Yoshida from Awaji came to live in Kuroda, followed by Kiritake Monzaburo from Osaka (who lived in the Tenpo era) and others.

In 1839, the old puppet stage at Suwa Shrine was demolished, and in the following 11 years, a two-story building with a width of 8 ken, a depth of 4 ken, and a 2-story building was constructed by Zenbei Izumiya, the master builder of Sakuramachi 2-chome (Iida). A new stage has been completed. It is the oldest and largest puppet stage in existence (National Important Tangible Folk Cultural Property)

According to the ``Myojin-ko Pledge Regulations'' written by Shiro Taitsuki (72 years old at the time) in 1897,

In our village, Seimei-an resides in Seikaku Makoto (Yuun), the Zen monk is the founder of doll education. In addition, Juzaburo Yoshida and his puppet comedians came to Awaji Province during the Tenmei era, and Senkyo Murauchi, who lived in the village, died during the Bunsei era. Later, in the third year of Tenpō, an entertainer named Kiritake Monzaburo, who lived in Osaka, came to live in this village and died in the middle of Bunkyu. Both people on the right are at the temple of Nitaenji Temple. I have a copy of Juzaburo Yoshida and the Ningyo Nemoto no Denden. After Shite's death, he wrote the Unodensho Tomura Ninari, and the secretary of the Zen Doll Theater. Now Naosuke Kitahara is the lord of light, and this person is bestowed with the treasured possession of Ariyuki.

The ``Ningyo Nemoto no Genden'' that Juzaburo Yoshida possessed is the ``Dokunbo Biography.'' The people of Kuroda also revere him, saying, ``As the secretary of all the dolls, it is a difficult book to obtain.'' After Juzaburo's death, ``Dokunbo Biography'' was placed in the village and treasured by Naosuke Kitahara, but unfortunately, its whereabouts are unknown and it cannot be viewed.

When Juzaburo was active in Kuroda, there was Hisazo Ichimura in the Furuta doll. It seems that the two people from the same hometown cooperated with each other, and Juzaburo also lent his support to the production of Furuta dolls.

According to the Furuta Ningyo Ranking, in the "Himachi Asobikyo" in the 3rd year of the Bunka era, Juzaburo played the shamisen under the names of Tsuruzawa Juzaburo and Nozawa Juzaburo in "Omi Genji Senjin Yakata Ninth," "Kusunoki Minatogawa Kassen," and "Go Taiheiki Shiroishi Banashi" (the head puppeteer was Ichimura Kyuzo). In the Inari Festival in Kansuke Kuruwa, Takato Castle in the 6th year of the Bunka era, he performed the puppets "Shiroishi Banashi" and "Yaguchi no Watashi" (Kyuzo took a break due to illness and died in the New Year the following year). After Kyuzo's death, he served as the head puppet master in the Hichimachi puppetry performance of 1812, "The Battle of Kinoshita Kagehazama," and in the Hichimachi puppetry performance of 1813, "The Pine Tree at the Ancient Battlefield of the Bell Hanging."

Juzaburo had no heir son, and adopted Shokichi, the adopted son of Rokuemon of Kamikota Village, in 1813. This can be seen from the ``Okuri Ichifuda'' sent from the head of Kamikota Village to the head of Shimokuroda Village. Rokuemon was a branch family of the famous Karasawa family in Kamifuruta (maybe he was the older brother of the eighth head of the Karasawa family). Juzaburo was accepted by the people of Kamikota to the extent that he had relationships with prestigious families.

Juzaburo died on September 23, 1821. His grave is located at Tainenji Temple in Shimokuroda. His posthumous posthumous name is ``Akiyama Ryogo Zenjomon.'' Looking at his magnificent tomb made of natural stone, you can see how much he was respected by the villagers.

According to Masakichi Mugishima, former president of the Kuroda Doll Preservation Society, the graves of Juzaburo, Monzaburo, and others were located in different locations within Tainenji Temple, but in 1975, it was decided that they would like to be enshrined in one place. They asked Tainen-ji Temple to move the statues all together to a prime spot overlooking the entire Shimokuroda Ward, with Suwa Shrine, where the puppet stage is located, in the distance, and the preservation society is protecting the graves. Masakichi Mugishima ``Kuroda Doll Memorandum''). It reminds us of the sincerity of the people of Kuroda, who never forget their gratitude and respect for their masters, even after hundreds of years.

In 1945, the fifth generation Kiritakemonzo from Awaji visited Kuroda to investigate Kashira. When he saw a performance of Kuroda's Sanbaso, he felt nostalgic because he thought it was the same as Awaji's Sanbaso.

Kono doll and Morikawa Sengazo

Kono dolls were located in Kono, Toyooka Village, Shimoina District, on the left bank of the Tenryu River. It has already become extinct, and the 60 pieces are stored in the Toyooka Village History and Folklore Museum. Chikazo Morikawa, a puppeteer from Awaji, taught in Kono. He was around the same time as Furuta's Hisazo Ichimura and Kuroda's Juzaburo Yoshida. However, only Sengakura's ``Dokunbo Biography'' and its transfer letter remain, but there is no record of Kono dolls or Sengakura's activities.

Certificate of gift transfer
1. I was born in Awaji and ran a business there, and received the Imperial Will. As I am now old and have no relatives or blood relatives, I asked the people who signed the colophon to accept my request, and they accepted the Imperial Will. However, since I have no family in Awaji, I have no problems with my performances and other things, and I have been greatly cherished and have relied on you on many occasions. The above is the Imperial Will transfer document, as stated above. March, Bunka 5th year
Transferee of Imperial Order: Sengakura
Kono Village Denbeiden ㊞
(Seven Konomura names omitted)
Fukuyo Village Sagoemonden ㊞
(Shigeto Takigawa's collection, Toyooka Village, Shimoina District)

``Rinshi'' here refers to ``Dokunbo Biography''. In 1808, Sengazo, who was old and had no family, handed over the ``Dokunbo Biography'' that he had owned for many years to nine people from Kono Village and Fukuyo Village. The people of Kono attached a piece of paper to the box that read, ``No matter where you go, in the event of a fire, please bring this box out as soon as possible.'' , I have conveyed this message carefully.

It seems that Senga Kura had some kind of relationship with the Furuta dolls of Kamiina, and a gold sign with the name of Senga Kura is said to have been passed down in Kami Furuta.

Imada's "Biography of Dokunbo"

The ``Dokunbo Biography'' passed down in Inaya was thought to consist of three volumes: Furuta, Kuroda, and Kono, but the fourth volume was discovered at the Okumura family in Tatsue, Iida City. Ryue is the location of Imada dolls. There are no records or traditions about who passed this on to Imada, but there is a possibility that Awaji puppeteers were involved in the history of Imada dolls. Furthermore, at the end of this ``Biography of Dokunbo,'' it says ``Written by Nakain Dainagon Dori Murakyo (red seal), Mihara District, Kamimura, Ichimura, Sanjo Village,'' but there is no village called Kamimura in Mihara District.

Yoshio Ito has speculated that, based on the fact that not a few copies of the "Dokunbo Biography" remain, the person who came to Ina Valley must have been a leader or a head of a troupe. Indeed, looking at their activities of performing new plays one after another and managing the performances as heads, they were no mere puppeteers, but people of great character and insight who were well versed in all three arts and well informed about the state of affairs in the central Joruri world, and who must have held a considerable position in their former troupe.

The names of six puppeteers who went to Shinshu to perform at Dokunbo-mawari are listed in the names of Hashirinin in the Munetsucho of Sanjo Village and Ichimura, who went missing there. There are many puppeteers whose origins are unknown, and it is likely that many more puppeteers actually entered Ina Valley. Nagata Kokichi also considers Matagoro Ichimura, Keizo Ichimura, and Choshiro Yoshida, who appear to be in Furuta's ranking, to be puppeteers from Awaji (``Revised Japanese Puppet Theater''). Furthermore, Takeo Murasawa's ``Ina no Geino'' states that Takemoto Tsurudayu (Masayoshi Tsurusawa) of Fukuyo Village was also from Awaji, but there is no confirmation of either. Ina Valley has actively accepted professional puppeteers, and puppeteers from all over the world come to the valley in search of a safe haven.